Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Nitrogen-Diluted Methane Flames in the Near-and Far-Field

[+] Author and Article Information
Kevin Lyons

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695-7910

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received January 29, 2013; final manuscript received April 17, 2013; published online July 2, 2013. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(4), 042205 (Jul 02, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1041; doi: 10.1115/1.4024315 History: Received January 29, 2013; Revised April 17, 2013

With the increased utilization of multicomponent fuels, such as natural gas and biogas, in industrial applications, there is a need to be able to effectively model and predict the properties of jet flames for mixed fuels. In addition, the interaction of these diluted fuels with outside influences (such as differing levels of coflow air) is a primary consideration. Experiments were performed on methane jet flames under the influence of varying levels of nitrogen dilution, from low Reynolds number lifted regimes to blowout, observing the influence of the nitrogen on lifted flame height and flame chemiluminesence images. These findings were analyzed and compared with existing lifted jet flame relations, such as the flammable region approximation proposed by Tieszen et al., as well as to undiluted flames. The influence of nitrogen dilution was seen to have an effect on the liftoff height of the flame, as well as the blowout velocity of the flame, but was seen to have a less pronounced effect compared with flames with coflowing air.

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Fig. 1

Fuel dilution burner setup with coflowing annulus

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Fig. 2

Location of the leading edge of the flame versus flammable region approximation using mass fractions (Y) of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 (trial 1)

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Fig. 3

(a)–(g) Comparison of experimental data to flammable limit approximation for trials 1–7

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Fig. 4

Percent difference between the leading edge to approximation results (assuming constant radial position) to Reynolds number for near-field dilution experiments (Re < 4000)

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Fig. 5

Percent difference between the leading edge to approximation results (assuming constant radial position) and mass fraction for near-field dilution experiments (Re < 4000)

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Fig. 6

Axial position of the flame base for far-field experiments (Re > 5000)

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Fig. 7

Radial position of the flame base for far-field experiments (Re > 5000)

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Fig. 8

Variation of downstream stabilized position due to effect of coflowing air for far-field experiments (Re > 5000)

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Fig. 9

Ratio of axial to radial positions (r/z) of stabilized flame base for far-field experiments (Re > 5000)

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Fig. 10

Flammable limit approximation for pure jet cases in comparison to peak radial expansion

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Fig. 11

Nitrogen dilution over flow regime for both near and far flow field experiments



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