Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

An Enabling Study of Low Temperature Combustion With Ethanol in a Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Ming Zheng

University of Windsor,
Windsor, ON,
N9B 3P4, Canada

Jimi Tjong

Ford Motor Company,
Windsor, ON, V6B 4E3,

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 30, 2013; final manuscript received February 7, 2013; published online May 31, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Timothy J. Jacobs.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(4), 042203 (May 31, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1042; doi: 10.1115/1.4024027 History: Received January 30, 2013; Revised February 07, 2013

Previous research indicates that the low temperature combustion (LTC) is capable of producing ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The LTC in diesel engines can be enabled by the use of heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at moderate engine loads. However, when operating at higher engine loads, elevated demands of both intake boost and EGR levels to ensure ultra-low emissions make engine controllability a challenging task. In this work, a multifuel combustion strategy is implemented to improve the emission performance and engine controllability at higher engine loads. The port fueling of ethanol is ignited by the direct injection of diesel fuel. The ethanol impacts on the engine emissions, ignition delay, heat-release shaping, and cylinder-charge cooling have been empirically analyzed with the sweeps of different ethanol-to-diesel ratios. Zero-dimensional phenomenological engine cycle simulations have been conducted to supplement the empirical work. The multifuel combustion of ethanol and diesel produces lower emissions of NOx and soot while maintaining the engine efficiency. The experimental setup and study cases are described, and the potential for the application of an ethanol-to-diesel multifuel system at higher loads has been proposed and discussed.

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Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the test setup

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Fig. 2

In-house developed intake manifold with secondary fuel adaptation

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Fig. 3

Indicated NOx and soot emissions of diesel only LTC, calculated ignition delay, combustion duration, thermal efficiency versus intake O2, and cylinder pressure and HRR curves for intake O2 of 17% and 8.5%

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Fig. 4

Indicated NOx and soot emissions of diesel-ethanol LTC with different ratios at 2 bars (abs) boost

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Fig. 5

Indicated THC and CO emission comparison between diesel only and diesel-ethanol EGR sweeps

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Fig. 6

HRR curves and injection command timings for different PF ratios at varied intake oxygen levels

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Fig. 7

Cylinder pressure and HRR traces of diesel-ethanol combustion of 13.3 bars IMEP

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Fig. 8

HRR, diesel SOI, and CA50 of diesel injection timing sweep

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Fig. 9

Combustion ignition delay comparison between diesel only and diesel-ethanol EGR sweeps

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Fig. 10

HRR shape changing with DI/PF ratio increasing while maintaining IMEP and CA50

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Fig. 11

The injection timing, CA5 and CA50, and emission trends of the diesel and ethanol ratio sweep

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Fig. 12

Cylinder pressure and HRR curves of different PF percentage

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Fig. 13

Mean cylinder pressure calculated based on the ideal gas law for different PF ratios

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Fig. 14

Simulated in-cylinder conditions highlighting ethanol evaporation

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Fig. 15

Effect of combustion duration and CA50 on simulated cycle efficiency, peak cylinder pressure, and pressure rise rate



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