Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Comparing Energy and Cost Optimization in Distributed Energy Systems Management

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrea Luigi Facci

Department of Engineering,
University of Napoli “Parthenope”,
Centro Direzionale Isola C4,
Napoli 80143, Italy
e-mail: andrea.facci@uniparthenope.it

Luca Andreassi

Department Industrial Engineering,
University of Roma “Tor Vergata”,
Via del Politecnico 1,
Roma 00133, Italy
e-mail: luca.andreassi@uniroma2.it

Fabrizio Martini

Department of Engineering,
University of Napoli “Parthenope”,
Centro Direzionale Isola C4,
Napoli 80143, Italy
e-mail: fabrizio.martini@gmail.com

Stefano Ubertini

Industrial Engineering School,
Department of Economy and Enterprise (DEIM),
University of Tuscia,
Largo dell'Università,
Viterbo 01100, Italy
e-mail: stefano.ubertini@unitus.it

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 28, 2013; final manuscript received February 27, 2014; published online April 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Andrea Lazzaretto.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(3), 032001 (Apr 17, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-13-1251; doi: 10.1115/1.4027155 History: Received August 28, 2013; Revised February 27, 2014

Distributed generation, despite not being a new concept, is assuming a leading role in the field of energy conversion, as it should contribute to the enhancement of efficiency, flexibility, and reliability of national energy systems. However, it also noted that the effective performances of small and flexible power plants is critically influenced by their actual control strategy. Moreover, it is not trivial to identify a univocal parameter to evaluate the plant performance. For instance, cost evaluation clearly responds to an industrial view of the energy supply problem, while energy consumption or polluting emissions comply with a socio economic approach. In this scenario, the optimization of the plant management is a valuable instrument to gain insight on their behavior as the control strategy is varied, as well as to promote the distributed generation development, by maximizing the plants performances. In this paper, we further develop a graph based optimization methodology to optimize the set-point of an internal combustion engine based plant used to satisfy a hospital energy load, under different seasonal load conditions (winter, summer, and transitional seasons) and energy prices. Specifically, in order to dissect the effects of the objective function selection, two different optimization criteria are considered, namely economical optimization and primary energy consumption minimization. In particular, we focus on the features of the prime mover (i.e., the internal combustion engine) control strategy and on its drivers, as a function of the prescribed objective function. Results demonstrate that in the actual Italian energy market, cost minimization does not match primary energy consumption minimization, because the latter is only influenced by energy demand time series, and equipments performance, while the former is fundamentally driven by the electricity prices time series.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of a CHCP plant components with energy and mass fluxes

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the graph representation of the problem

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Fig. 3

Energy demand time series [29]

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Fig. 4

Time series of the electricity price sold to the grid [30]

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Fig. 5

Schematic flow sheet of the plant under consideration with energy and mass fluxes

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Fig. 6

Efficiency curves for all the plant components

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Fig. 7

Internal combustion engine derating curves [33], as function of altitude and temperature

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Fig. 8

Set-points that minimize the PEC

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Fig. 9

Set-points that minimizes the total daily cost



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