Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

An Experimental and Modeling Study Into Using Normal and Isocetane Fuel Blends as a Surrogate for a Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Jim Cowart, Michael Raynes, Len Hamilton, Dianne Luning Prak

United States Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402

Marco Mehl, William Pitz

LLNL, Livermore, CA 94550

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 15, 2014; final manuscript received April 7, 2014; published online April 25, 2014. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 136(3), 032202 (Apr 25, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1010; doi: 10.1115/1.4027408 History: Received January 15, 2014; Revised April 07, 2014

A new hydroprocessed renewable diesel (HRD) fuel comprised both straight chain and branched alkane fuel components. In an effort to find a research surrogate for this fuel, single cylinder engine testing was performed with various blends of n-hexadecane (cetane) and isocetane in order to find a binary surrogate mixture with similar performance characteristics to that of the HRD. A blend of approximately two-thirds n-hexadecane with one-third isocetane showed the most similar behavior based on conventional combustion metrics. Companion combustion modeling was then pursued using a combined detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for both n-hexadecane and isocetane. These modeling results show both the importance of isocetane in lengthening ignition delay (IGD), as well as the overall importance of chemical ignition delay as the dominating effect in the overall ignition delay of these binary blend fuels.

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Density for isocetane and hexadecane mixtures by SVM3000 method at 20 °C

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Fig. 3

Dynamic viscosity for isocetane and n-hexadecane mixtures at 20 °C for SVM3000 [19] and at 25 °C (from Ref. [20])

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Fig. 4

Surface tension of mixtures of isocetane and hexadecane (HRD surface tension denoted as dashed line)

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Fig. 5

Flash point of mixtures of isocetane and hexadecane (HRD surface tension denoted as dashed line)

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Fig. 6

Start of combustion

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Fig. 7

HRR for three fuel blends (20%, 50%, and 80% iC16) and HRD:P (bar/10), Pinj(bar/50), HRR (J/deg)

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Fig. 8

IGD results for the various fuel blends and HRD (between circles and square set)

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Fig. 9

Angle of peak (AOP) results for the various fuel blends as a function of engine load

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Fig. 10

Combustion duration for the various fuel blends as a function of load

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Fig. 11

Detailed kinetic modeling chemical ignition delay calculations

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Fig. 12

Experimental and modeling IGD results with a 10% mass reduction applied

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Fig. 13

Total, chemical, and physical delay with a 5% air mass reduction

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Fig. 14

Total, chemical, and physical delay periods with an isentropic compression estimate



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