Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Full Fluid–Solid Cohesive Finite-Element Model to Simulate Near Wellbore Fractures

[+] Author and Article Information
Saeed Salehi

Assistant Professor
Petroleum Engineering,
University of Louisiana at Lafayette,
104 University Circle,
Lafayette, LA 70504
e-mail: saeads@gmail.com

Runar Nygaard

Associate Professor
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
129 McNutt,
1400 N. Bishops Avenue,
Rolla, MO 65401
e-mail: nygaardr@mst.edu

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 2, 2014; final manuscript received May 6, 2014; published online August 27, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Christopher J. Wajnikonis.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(1), 012903 (Aug 27, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1003; doi: 10.1115/1.4028251 History: Received January 02, 2014; Revised May 06, 2014

This paper presents finite-element simulation for hydraulic fracture's initiation, propagation, and sealing in the near wellbore region. A full fluid solid coupling module is developed by using pore pressure cohesive elements. The main objective of this study is to investigate the hypothesis of wellbore hoop stress increase by fracture sealing. Anisotropic stress state has been used with assignment of individual criteria for fracture initiation and propagation. Our results demonstrate that fracture sealing in “wellbore strengthening” cannot increase the wellbore hoop stress beyond its upper limit when no fractures exist. However, this will help to restore part or all of the wellbore hoop stress lost during fracture propagation.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dugdale, D. S., 1960, “Yielding of Steel Sheets Containing Slits,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 8(2), pp. 100–104. [CrossRef]
Barenblatt, G. I., 1962, “The Mathematical Theory of Equilibrium Cracks in Brittle Fracture,” Adv. Appl. Mech., 7(1), pp. 55–129. [CrossRef]
Hillerborg, A., Modeer, M., and Petersson, P.-E., 1976, “Analysis of Crack Formation and Crack Growth in Concrete by Means of Fracture Mechanics and Finite Elements,” Cem. Concr. Res., 6(6), pp. 773–782. [CrossRef]
Needleman, A., 1990, “An Analysis of Decohesion Along an Imperfect Interface,” Int. J. Fract., 42(1), pp. 21–40. [CrossRef]
Xu, X. P., and Needleman, A., 1994, “Numerical Simulations of Fast Crack Growth in Brittle Solids,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 42(9), pp.1397–1434. [CrossRef]
Allix, O., and Ladevèze, P., 1992, “Interlaminar Interface Modelling for the Prediction of Delamination,” Compos. Struct., 22(4), pp. 235–242. [CrossRef]
Chen, Z., Bunger, A. P., Zhang, X., and Jeffrey, G., 2009, “Cohesive Zone Finite Element-Based Modelling of Hydraulic Fractures,” Acta Mech. Solida Sin., 22(5), pp. 443–452. [CrossRef]
Needleman, A., 2014, “Some Issues in Cohesive Surface Modelling,” Procedia IUTAM, 10, pp. 221–246. [CrossRef]
Carrier, B., and Grant, S., 2012, “Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Problem in Permeable Medium Using Cohesive Zone Model,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 79, pp. 312–328. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y., Chen, J., and Li, H. B., 2008, “Improved Cohesive Zone Model and Its Application in Interface Contact Analysis,” Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), 21(4), pp. 295–302. [CrossRef]
Roe, K. L., and Siegmund, T., 2003, “An Irreversible Cohesive Zone Model for Interface Fatigue Crack Growth Simulations,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 70(2), pp. 209–232. [CrossRef]
Anderson, T. L., 1995, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed., CRC Publications, Boca Raton, FL.
Wojtanowicz, A. K., and Zhou, D., 1998, “Borehole Failure Resulting From Formation Integrity (Leak-Off) Testing in Upper Marine Sediments Offshore,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 120(2), pp. 111–117. [CrossRef]
Altun, G., Shirman, E., Langlinais, J. P., and Bourgoyne, A. T., 1999, “New Model to Analyze Nonlinear Leak-Off Test Behavior,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 121(2), pp. 102–109. [CrossRef]
Nygaard, R., and Salehi, S. A., 2011, “Critical Review of Wellbore Strengthening: Physical Model and Field Deployment,” AADE National Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, No. AADE-11-NTCE-24.
Mannon, T., and Salehi, S., 2013, “Revisiting Well Design and Formation Pressure Prediction: A Case Study From Gulf of Mexico,” 47th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, June.
Hubbert, K. M., and Willis, D. G., 1957, “Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing,” Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 210(6), pp.153–163.
Kirsch, 1898, “Die Theorie der Elastizitat und die Bedurfnisse der Festigkeitslehre,” Z. Ver. Dtsch. Ing., 42, pp. 797–807.
Deily, F. H., and Owens, T. C., 1969, “Stress Around a Wellbore,” 44th SPE Annual Fall Meeting of AIME held in Denver, CO, Sept. 28–Oct. 1, SPE 2557.
Bradley, W. B., 1979, “Failure of Inclined Borehole,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 101(4), pp. 233–239. [CrossRef]
Aadnoy, B. S., and Chenevert, M. E., 1987, “Stability of Highly Inclined Boreholes,” SPE Drill. Eng., 2(4) pp. 364–418. [CrossRef]
Aadnoy, B. S., 1988, “Modelling of the Stability of Highly Inclined Boreholes in Anisotropic Rock Formations,” SPE Drill. Eng., 3(3), pp. 259–268. [CrossRef]
Zamora, M., and Broussard, M. P. S., 2000, “The Top 10 Mud-Related Concerns in Deepwater Drilling Operations,” SPE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, Feb. 1–3, SPE 59019.
Wang, H., Soliman, M. Y., and Towler, B. F., 2009, “Investigation of Factors for Strengthening a Wellbore by Propping Fractures,” SPE Drill. Completion, 24(3), pp. 441–451. [CrossRef]
Nes, O., Kristiansen, T. G., Hoursrud, P., Fjaer, E., and Tronvoll, J., 2012, “Drilling Time Reduction Through an Integrated Rock Mechanics Analysis,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(3), p. 032802. [CrossRef]
Salehi, S., and Mannon, T., 2013, “Application of Seismic Frequency Based Pore Pressure Prediction in Well Design: Review of an Integrated Well Design Approach in Deep Water Gulf of Mexico,” J. Geol. Geosci., 2, p. 125. [CrossRef]
Salehi, S., and Nygaard, R., 2011, “Evaluation of New Drilling Approach for Widening Operational Window: Implications for Wellbore Strengthening,” SPE Productions and Operations Symposium, OK, Paper No. SPE 140753.
Salehi, S., and Nygaard, R., 2012, “Numerical Modeling of Induced Fracture Propagation: A Novel Approach for Lost Circulation Materials (LCM) Design in Borehole Strengthening Applications of Deep Offshore Drilling,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, October, Paper No. SPE/IADC 135155.
Aadnoy, B. S., and Belayneh, M., 2008, “Design of Well Barriers to Combat Circulation Loss,” SPE Drill. Completion, 23(3), pp. 295–300. [CrossRef]
Fuh, G. F., Beardmore, D., and Morita, N., 2007, “Further Development, Field Testing, and Application of the Wellbore Strengthening Technique for Drilling Operations,” SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, Paper No. SPE/IADC 105809.
Wang, H., and Towler, B. F., 2007, “Fractured Wellbore Stress Analysis: Sealing Cracks to Strengthen a Wellbore,” SPE Drilling Conference, Netherlands, Paper No. SPE/IADC 104947.
Nandurdikar, N. S., Takach, N. E., and Miska, S., 2002, “Chemically Improved Filter Cakes for Drilling Wells,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 124(4), pp. 223–230. [CrossRef]
Abdo, J., and Danish Haneef, M., 2011, “Nano-Enhanced Drilling Fluids: Pioneering Approach to Overcome Uncompromising Drilling Problems,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(1), p. 014501. [CrossRef]
ABAQUS, 2011, “Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp.,” Version 6.11.
Camacho, G. T., and Ortiz, M., 1996, “Computational Modelling of Impact Damage in Brittle Materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 33(20–22), pp. 899–938. [CrossRef]
Ruiz, G., Pandolfi, A., and Ortiz, M., 2001, “Three-Dimensional Cohesive Modeling of Dynamic Mixed-Mode Fracture,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 52(1–2), pp. 97–120. [CrossRef]
Irwin, G. R., 1960, “Plastic Zone Near a Crack and Fracture Toughness,” Proceedings of the Seventh Sagamore Ordnance Materials Conference, Syracuse University, New York, Vol. 4, pp. 63–78.
Falk, M. L., Needleman, A., and Rice, J. R., 2001, “A Critical Evaluation of Cohesive Zone Models of Dynamic Fracture,” J. Phys. IV France, 11, pp. Pr5-43–Pr5-50. [CrossRef]
Rice, J. R., 1992, “Dislocation Nucleation From a Crack Tip—An Analysis Based on the Peierls Concept,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 40(2), pp. 239–271. [CrossRef]
Geertsma, J., and de Klerk, F., 1969, “A Rapid Method of Predicting Width and Extent of Hydraulically Induced Fractures,” J. Petroleum Technol., 21, pp. 1571–1581. [CrossRef]
Mohammadnejad, T., and Khoei, A. R., 2013, “An Extended Finite Element Method for Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Deformable Porous Media With the Cohesive Crack Model,” Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 73, pp. 77–95. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Traction–separation law for cohesive zone modeling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Fluid flow into cohesive elements considering both tangential and normal flows

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

A schematic of the steps required in the simulations for fracture sealing based on a typical XLOT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Radial stress versus distance based on different ratios of model size over borehole diameter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Calculation error for simulations with different element types comparing to analytical solution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Finite element analysis poro-elastic model details including boundary conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Loading experiments for cohesive elements properties

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of different parameters on maximum fracture opening based on normalized values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Stress profile in cohesive elements direction for intact case (left) and after fracture propagation (right, fracture size has been magnified)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pore pressure distribution in the model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Hoop stress around the wellbore after fracture sealed (second line from top), after fracture propagated (bottom line), after fracture initiated (dashed line), and for intact wellbore (top line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Fracture openings from cohesive model and KGD analytical model. (b) Fracture pressures from cohesive model and KGD analytical model.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In