Research Papers: Energy Storage/Systems

Effects of Temperature on Internal Resistances of Lithium-Ion Batteries

[+] Author and Article Information
Sazzad Hossain Ahmed

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Xiaosong Kang

Hybrid Power,
Eaton Corporation,
Galesburg, MI 49053

S. O. Bade Shrestha

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Western Michigan University,
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
e-mail: Bade.Shrestha@wmich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 16, 2014; final manuscript received September 5, 2014; published online November 17, 2014. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 137(3), 031901 (May 01, 2015) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4028698 History: Received July 16, 2014; Revised September 05, 2014; Online November 17, 2014

The performance of a lithium-ion battery is significantly dependent on temperature conditions. At subzero temperatures, due to higher resistances, it shows lower capacity and power availability that may affect adversely applications of these batteries in vehicles particularly in cold climate environment. To investigate internal resistances, LiMnNiO and LiFePO4 batteries were tested at wide temperature ranges from 50 °C to −20 °C. Using impedance spectroscopy, major internal resistances such as cathode interfacial, anode interfacial and conductive, have been identified by using a simple equivalent circuit. Results showed that at subzero temperatures the anode interfacial resistance was almost twice than the cathode interfacial resistance. A simple model of the individual resistance increment as a function of temperature has also been presented at the end of the paper. In addition, dependency of cell impedance on state of charge (SOC) and temperature has also been analyzed from the test results.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of equivalent lithium-ion battery model used to analyze EIS data

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Fig. 2

Nyquist plots of the cells as a function of SOCs

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Fig. 3

Resistances in the cells as a function of temperature at 50% SOC

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Fig. 4

Resistances in the cells as a function of temperature at 20% and 70% SOCs

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Fig. 5

Resistances in the cells at different SOCs over temperatures

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Fig. 6

Cathode and anode interfacial resistance models as a function of temperatures



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