Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Preheats Effects on JP8 Reforming Under Volume Distributed Reaction Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Richard Scenna

Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Aberdeen, MD 21005

Ashwani K. Gupta

Fellow ASME
Distinguished University Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: akgupta@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 4, 2015; final manuscript received November 8, 2015; published online December 22, 2015. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(3), 032202 (Dec 22, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1426; doi: 10.1115/1.4032140 History: Received November 04, 2015; Revised November 08, 2015

Conventional noncatalytic fuel reforming provides low efficiency, large amounts of char and tar and limited control on chemical composition of the syngas produced. The distributed reaction regime can be used to assist noncatalytic reforming. In this paper, volume distributed reaction technique is used to enhance reformate quality as compared to conventional noncatalytic reforming. This work examines the intermediate regimes between volume distributed reaction and conventional flame to reform JP8 with focus on the chemical and mixing time scales. Chemical time scales were controlled with air preheat temperatures while the mixing time scales were kept constant. Progressive shift toward distributed reaction regime resulted in higher quality reformate with increased amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the syngas, but with reduced acetylene concentrations and soot formation. Visible soot formation was observed on reactor walls only under the flamelets in eddies regime. Higher hydrogen and carbon monoxide without any catalyst for JP8 reformation offers significant advantages on cost-effective plant operation, reliability, and high yields of syngas. Air preheats of 600, 630, and 660 °C showed a distributed reaction regime wherein the Damkohler number was below the Damkohler criterion, and this condition provided high H2 and CO yields and no soot. At temperature of 690 °C, laminar flame thickness approximated the integral length scale (at the interface of distributed and traditional reforming flame) showed minor soot formation. At even higher temperature of 750 °C, conventional reforming occurred with increased soot observed.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Pastore, A. , 2010, “ Syngas Production From Heavy Liquid Fuel Reforming in Inert Porous Media,” University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk
Al-Hamamre, Z. , Deizinger, S. , Mach, A. , Issendorff, F. , and Trimis, D. , 2006, “ Thermal Partial Oxidation of Diesel in Porous Reactor for Synthesis Gas Production,” Clean Air, 7(4), pp. 391–408.
Roth, K. , and Wirtz, S. , 2007, “ Investigation of Soot Formation During Partial Oxidation of Diesel Fuel,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 30(6), pp. 782–789. [CrossRef]
Chen, C. , Sur, S. , Thayer, J. , Pearlman, H. , and Ronney, P. , 2013, “ A Non-Catalytic Fuel-Flexible Reformer,” 8th U.S. National Combustion Meeting Western State Section, Park City, UT, May 19–22, pp. 1–7.
Pastore, A. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2011, “ Syngas Production From Liquid Fuels in a Non-Catalytic Porous Burner,” Fuel, 90(1), pp. 64–76. [CrossRef]
Smith, C. , 2012, “ Studies of Rich and Ultra-Rich Combustion for Syngas Production,” University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, repositories.lib.utexas.edu/
Al-Hamamre, Z. , and Al-Zoubi, A. , 2010, “ The Use of Inert Porous Media Based Reactors for Hydrogen Production,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35(5), pp. 1971–1986. [CrossRef]
Tsuji, H. , Gupta, A. K. , Hasegawa, T. , Katsuki, M. , Kishimoto, K. , and Morita, M. , 2003, High Temperature Air Combustion: From Energy Conservation to Pollution Reduction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Khalil, A. E. E. , Gupta, A. K. , Bryden, K. M. , and Lee, S. C. , 2012, “ Mixture Preparation Effects on Distributed Combustion for Gas Turbine Applications,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(3), p. 032201. [CrossRef]
Arghode, V. K. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2010, “ Effect of Flow Field for Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) for Gas Turbine Combustion,” Appl. Energy, 87(5), pp. 1631–1640. [CrossRef]
Scenna, R. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2015, “ Partial Oxidation of JP8 in a Distributed Reactor,” Fuel Process. Technol., 134(1), pp. 205–213. [CrossRef]
Muguerza, R. R. , Caldeira, A. B. , and Fachini, F. F. , 2011, “ Analysis of Scales for Flameless Combustion,” IV Fast Workshop on Applied and Computational Mathematics, Trujillo, Peru, Jan. 5–6, p. 17.
Glassman, I. , and Yetter, R. A. , 2008, Combustion, Elsevier, Burlington, MA.
Law, C. K. , 2010, Combustion Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York.
Arghode, V. K. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2011, “ Investigation of Forward Flow Distributed Combustion for Gas Turbine Application,” Appl. Energy, 88(1), pp. 29–40. [CrossRef]
Kumar, P. , and Ganesan, R. , 2012, “ A CFD Study of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in Circular Pipeflow,” Eng. Technol., 6(8), pp. 695–702.
Turns, S. R. , 2012, An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Arghode, V. K. , 2011, “ Development of Colorless Distributed Combustion for Gas Turbine Applications,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Doosje, E. , 2010, Limits of Mixture Dilution in Engines, Eindhoven University Press, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
Reaction Design, 2013, Chemkin-Pro 15131, Reaction Design, San Diego, CA.
Ranzi, E. , Frassoldati, A. , Grana, R. , Cuoci, A. , Faravelli, T. , Kelley, A. P. , and Law, C. K. , 2012, “ Hierarchical and Comparative Kinetic Modeling of Laminar Flame Speeds of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Fuels,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 38(4), pp. 468–501. [CrossRef]
Violi, A. , Yan, S. , and Eddings, E. , 2002, “ Experimental Formulation and Kinetic Model for JP-8 Surrogate Mixtures,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 174(11–12), pp. 399–418. [CrossRef]
Khalil, A. E. E. , Arghode, V. K. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2013, “ Novel Mixing for Ultra-High Thermal Intensity Distributed Combustion,” Appl. Energy, 105, pp. 327–334. [CrossRef]
Arghode, V. K. , Gupta, A. K. , and Bryden, K. M. , 2012, “ High Intensity Colorless Distributed Combustion for Ultra Low Emissions and Enhanced Performance,” Appl. Energy, 92, pp. 822–830. [CrossRef]
Khalil, A. E. E. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2011, “ Swirling Distributed Combustion for Clean Energy Conversion in Gas Turbine Applications,” Appl. Energy, 88(11), pp. 3685–3693. [CrossRef]
Li, L. , and Sunderland, P. B. , 2012, “ An Improved Method of Smoke Point Normalization,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 184(6), pp. 829–841. [CrossRef]
Ruiz, M. P. , Callejas, A. , Millera, A. , Alzueta, M. U. , and Bilbao, R. , 2007, “ Soot Formation From C2H2 and C2H4 Pyrolysis at Different Temperatures,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 79(1–2), pp. 244–251. [CrossRef]
Hartmann, L. , Lucka, K. , and Köhne, H. , 2003, “ Mixture Preparation by Cool Flames for Diesel-Reforming Technologies,” J. Power Sources, 118(1–2), pp. 286–297. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Reactor cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Global images of reactor at preheats of 600–750 °C in increments of 30 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Chemical and mixing time scales at preheats of 600–750 °C, in increments of 30 °C at O/C = 1.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Concentration of fixed gases at preheats of 600–750 °C, in increments of 30 °C at O/C = 1.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Lower hydrocarbon formation at preheats of 600–750 °C, in increments of 30 °C at O/C = 1.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Reactor exhaust temperature at preheats of 600–750 °C, increasing in increments of 30 °C at O/C = 1.3



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In