Research Papers: Energy From Biomass

Estimating the Theoretical Performance Limits of a Biogas Powered Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Using Emulsified Rice Bran Biodiesel as Pilot Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Bhaskor J. Bora

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781039, India
e-mail: bhaskor@iitg.ernet.in

Ujjwal K. Saha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781039, India
e-mail: saha@iitg.ernet.in

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 3, 2015; final manuscript received October 8, 2015; published online November 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(2), 021801 (Nov 12, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1201; doi: 10.1115/1.4031836 History: Received June 03, 2015; Revised October 08, 2015

The present study is an attempt to estimate the energy and the exergy potential of a biogas run dual fuel diesel engine using emulsified rice bran biodiesel (RBB) as pilot fuel at varying compression ratio (CR) and injection timing (IT). The objective is to arrive at an optimum setting of the engine based on dual fuel characteristics using energy and exergy analysis. The pilot fuel considered for this study is a two-phase stable water emulsion of RBB having water content (5%), surfactants (3%), and hydrophilic lipophilic balance value of 6. For experimentation, a 3.5 kW single cylinder, direct injection (DI), natural aspirated water-cooled, variable CR (VCR) diesel engine is converted into a dual fuel engine. Experiments are conducted for 12 different combinations of CR of 18, 17.5, and 17 and IT of 23 deg, 26 deg, 29 deg, and 32 deg bottom top dead center (BTDC) at full load conditions of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of 4.24 bar. The parameters analyzed are the energy and exergy potential of fuel input, shaft work, cooling water, exhaust gas, exergy destruction, peak cylinder pressure (PCP), peak heat release rate (PHRR), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exergy efficiency, exhaust gas temperature (EGT), entropy generation rate, and emission analysis. The results indicate that the combination of CR = 18 and IT = 29 deg BTDC gives a better thermodynamic performance for this particular range of the operating parameters for a raw biogas run dual fuel diesel engine using emulsified RBB as pilot fuel.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Demirbas, A. , 2009, Biofuels: Securing the Planet’s Future Energy Needs, Springer, London.
Nijaguna, B. T. , 2002, Biogas Technology, New Age International, New Delhi.
Korakianitis, T. , and Namasivayam, A. M. , and Crookes, R. J. , 2011, “ Diesel and Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) Pilot Fuels for Hydrogen and Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Combustion in Compression–Ignition Engines,” Fuel, 90(7), pp. 2384–2395. [CrossRef]
Sahoo, B. B. , Sahoo, N. , and Saha, U. K. , 2009, “ Effect of Engine Parameters and Type of Gaseous Fuel on the Performance of Dual-Fuel Gas Diesel Engines—A Critical Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 13(6–7), pp. 1151–1184. [CrossRef]
Junior, R. F. B. , and Martins, C. A. , 2015, “ Emission Analysis of a Diesel Engine Operating in Diesel–Ethanol Dual-Fuel Mode,” Fuel, 148(2015), pp. 191–201.
Lata, D. B. , Misra, A. , and Medhekar, S. , 2012, “ Effect of Hydrogen and LPG Addition on the Efficiency and Emissions of a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37(7), pp. 6084–6096. [CrossRef]
Selim, M. Y. E. , 2004, “ Sensitivity of Dual Fuel Engine Combustion and Knocking Limits to Gaseous Fuel Composition,” Energy Convers. Manage., 45(3), pp. 411–425. [CrossRef]
Polk, A. C. , Carpenter, C. D. , Srinivasan, K. K. , and Krishnan, S. R. , 2014, “ An Investigation of Diesel–Ignited Propane Dual Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” Fuel, 132, pp. 135–148. [CrossRef]
Banapurmath, N. R. , and Tewari, P. G. , 2009, “ Comparative Performance Studies of a 4-Stroke CI Engine Operated on Dual Fuel Mode with Producer Gas and Honge Oil and Its Methyl Ester (HOME) With and Without Carburetor,” Renewable Energy, 34(4), pp. 1009–1015. [CrossRef]
Sahoo, B. B. , 2011, “ Clean Development Mechanism Potential of Compression Ignition Diesel Engines Using Gaseous Fuel in Dual Fuel Mode,” Ph.D. thesis, Centre for Energy, IIT Guwahati, India.
Yoon, S. H. , and Lee, C. S. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Biogas—Biodiesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a CI Engine,” Fuel Process. Technol., 92(5), pp. 992–1000. [CrossRef]
Henham, A. , and Makkar, M. K. , 1998, “ Combustion of Simulated Biogas in a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 39(16–18), pp. 2001–2009. [CrossRef]
Walsh, J. L. , Ross, C. C. , Smith, M. S. , and Harper, S. R. , 1989, “ Utilization of Biogas,” Biomass, 20(34), pp. 277–290. [CrossRef]
Bari, S. , 1996, “ Effect of Carbon Dioxide on the Performance of Biogas/Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine,” Renewable Energy, 9(1–4), pp. 1007–1010. [CrossRef]
Luijten, C. C. M. , and Kerkhof, E. , 2011, “ Jatropha Oil and Biogas in a Dual Fuel CI Engine for Rural Electrification,” Energy Convers. Manage., 52(2), pp. 1426–1438. [CrossRef]
Bora, B. J. , and Saha, U. K. , 2015, “ Comparative Assessment of a Biogas Run Dual Fuel Diesel Engine With Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester, Pongamia Oil Methyl Ester and Palm Oil Methyl Ester as Pilot Fuels,” Renewable Energy, 81, pp. 490–498. [CrossRef]
Barik, D. , and Murugan, S. , 2014, “ Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Smoke in a Dual Fuel DI Diesel Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 84, pp. 217–226. [CrossRef]
Debnath, B. K. , Bora, B. J. , Saha, U. K. , and Sahoo, N. , 2013, “ Influence of Emulsified Palm Biodiesel as Pilot Fuel in a Biogas Run Dual Fuel Diesel Engine,” ASCE J. Energy Eng., 140(3), p. A4014005. [CrossRef]
Bora, B. J. , and Saha, U. K. , 2015, “ Improving the Performance of a Biogas Powered Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Using Emulsified Rice Bran Biodiesel as Pilot Fuel Through Adjustment of Compression Ratio and Injection Timing,” ASME J. Eng. for Gas Turbines Power, 137(9), p. 091505. [CrossRef]
Bora, B. J. , Saha, U. K. , Chatterjee, S. , and Veer, V. , 2014, “ Effect of Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Run on Raw Biogas,” Energy Convers. Manage., 87, pp. 1000–1009. [CrossRef]
Sjogren, A. , 1977, “ Burning of Water-in-Oil Emulsions,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 16(1), pp. 297–305. [CrossRef]
Nazha, M. A. A. , and Crookes, R. J. , 1985, “ Effect of Water Content on Pollutant Formation in a Burning Spray of Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsion,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 20(1), pp. 2001–2010. [CrossRef]
Abu-Zaid, M. , 2004, “ Performance of Single Cylinder, Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Water Fuel Emulsions,” Energy Conserv. Manage., 45(5), pp. 697–705. [CrossRef]
Lin, C. , and Wang, K. , 2004, “ Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Using Three-Phase Emulsions as Fuel,” Fuel, 83, pp. 537–545. [CrossRef]
Lin, C. , and Chen, L. , 2006, “ Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of Three-Phase Diesel Emulsions Prepared by an Ultrasonic Emulsification Method,” Fuel, 85, pp. 593–600. [CrossRef]
Lin, C. , and Chen, L. , 2008, “ Comparison of Fuel Properties and Emission Characteristics of Two and Three-Phase Emulsions Prepared by Ultrasonically Vibrating and Mechanically Homogenizing Emulsification Methods,” Fuel, 87, pp. 2154–2161. [CrossRef]
Lin, C. , and Lin, H. , 2007, “ Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Three-Phase Emulsion of Biodiesel Produced by Peroxidation,” Fuel Process. Technol., 88(1), pp. 35–41. [CrossRef]
Qi, D. H. , Chen, H. , Matthews, R. D. , and Brian, Y. Z. H. , 2010, “ Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Ethanol–Biodiesel–Water Micro-Emulsions Used in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine,” Fuel, 89, pp. 959–964. [CrossRef]
Sadhik Basha, J. , and Anand, R. B. , 2010, “ An Experimental Investigation in a Diesel Engine Using Carbon Nanotubes Blended Water–Diesel Emulsion,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Energy, 225, pp. 279–288. [CrossRef]
Kannan, G. R. , and Anand, R. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation on Diesel Engine With Diestrol-Water Micro-Emulsions,” Energy, 36(3), pp. 1680–1687. [CrossRef]
Debnath, B. K. , Saha, U. K. , and Sahoo, N. , 2014, “ An Experimental Way of Assessing the Application Potential of Emulsified Palm Biodiesel Toward Alternative to Diesel,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136, p. 021401. [CrossRef]
Namasivayam, A. M. , Korakianitis, T. , Crookes, R. J. , Bob-Manuel, K. D. H. , and Olsen, J. , 2010, “ Biodiesel, Emulsified Biodiesel and Dimethyl Ether as Pilot Fuels for Natural Gas Fuelled Engines,” Appl. Energy, 87(3), pp. 769–778. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T. , Namasivayam, A. M. , and Crookes, R. J. , 2010, “ Hydrogen Dual-Fuelling of Compression Ignition Engines With Emulsified Biodiesel as Pilot Fuel,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35, pp. 13328–13344. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , and Giakoumis, E. G. , 2009, Diesel Transient Operation: Principles of Operation and Simulation Analysis, Springer Limited, London, pp. 277–304.
AL-Najem, N. M. , and Diab, J. M. , 1992, “ Energy-Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine,” Heat Recovery Syst. CHP, 12(6), pp. 525–529. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , and Kyritsis, D. C. , 2001, “ Comparative Second-Law Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Operation for Methane, Methanol, and Dodecane Fuels,” Energy, 26(7), pp. 705–722. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , and Giakoumis, E. G. , 2004, “ Availability Analysis of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operating Under Transient Load Conditions,” Energy, 29(8), pp. 1085–1104. [CrossRef]
Parlak, A. , 2005, “ The Effect of Heat Transfer on Performance of the Diesel Cycle and Exergy of the Exhaust Gas Stream in a LHR Diesel Engine at the Optimum Injection Timing,” Energy Convers. Manage., 46(2), pp. 167–179. [CrossRef]
Parlak, A. , Yasar, H. , and Eldogan, O. , 2005, “ The Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating on a Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Performance and Exergy Potential of the Exhaust Gas,” Energy Convers. Manage., 46(3), pp. 489–499. [CrossRef]
Giakoumis, E. G. , 2007, “ Cylinder Wall Insulation Effects on the First- and Second-Law Balances of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operating Under Transient Load Conditions,” Energy Convers. Manage., 48(11), pp. 2925–2933. [CrossRef]
Ghazikhani, M. , Feyz, M. E. , and Joharchi, A. , 2010, “ Experimental Investigation of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation Effects on Irreversibility and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption of Indirect Injection Diesel Engines,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(13), pp. 1711–1718. [CrossRef]
Zheng, J. , and Caton, J. A. , 2012, “ Second Law Analysis of a Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine: Effect of Injection Timing and Exhaust Gas Recirculation,” Energy, 38(1), pp. 78–84. [CrossRef]
Ozkan, M. , Ozkan, D. B. , Ozener, O. , and Yılmaz, H. , 2013, “ Experimental Study on Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Diesel Engine Performed With Multiple Injection Strategies: Effect of Pre-Injection Timing,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 53(1), pp. 21–30. [CrossRef]
Ghazikhani, M. , Hatami, M. , Ganji, D. D. , Gorji-Bandpy, M. , Behravana, A. , and Shahi, G. , 2014, “ Exergy Recovery From the Exhaust Cooling in a DI Diesel Engine for BSFC Reduction Purposes,” Energy, 65, pp. 44–51. [CrossRef]
Hatami, M. , Ganji, D. D. , and Gorji-Bandpy, M. , 2015, “ Experimental and Thermodynamical Analyses of the Diesel Exhaust Vortex Generator Heat Exchanger for Optimizing Its Operating Condition,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 75, pp. 580–591. [CrossRef]
Debnath, B. K. , Sahoo, N. , and Saha, U. K. , 2013, “ Thermodynamic Analysis of a Variable Compression Ratio Diesel Engine Running With Palm Oil Methyl Ester,” Energy Convers. Manage., 65, pp. 147–154. [CrossRef]
Debnath, B. K. , Saha, U. K. , and Sahoo, N. , 2014, “ Theoretical Route Toward the Estimation of Second Law Potential of an Emulsified Palm Biodiesel Run Diesel Engine,” ASCE J. Energy Eng., 140(3), p. A4014007. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , and Giakoumis, E. G. , 1997, “ Speed and Load Effects on the Availability Balances and Irreversibilities Production in a Multi-Cylinder Turbocharged Diesel Engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 17(3), pp. 299–313. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , and Giakoumis, E. G. , 1997, “ Simulation and Exergy Analysis of Transient Diesel-Engine Operation,” Energy, 22(9), pp. 875–885. [CrossRef]
Abassi, A. , Khalilarya, S. , and Jafarmadar, S. , 2010, “ The Influence of the Inlet Charge Temperature on the Second Law Balance Under the Various Operating Engine Speeds in DI Diesel Engine,” Fuel, 89(9), pp. 2425–2432. [CrossRef]
Azoumaha, Y. , Blin, J. , and Daho, T. , 2009, “ Exergy Efficiency Applied for the Performance Optimization of a Direct Injection Compression Ignition (CI) Engine Using Biofuels,” Renewable Energy, 34(6), pp. 1494–1500. [CrossRef]
Caliskan, H. , Tat, M. E. , and Hepbasli, A. , 2009, “ Performance Assessment of an Internal Combustion Engine at Varying Dead (Reference) State Temperatures,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(16), pp. 3431–3436. [CrossRef]
Tat, M. E. , 2011, “ Cetane Number Effect on the Energetic and Exergetic Efficiency of a Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biodiesel,” Fuel Process. Technol., 92(7), pp. 1311–1321. [CrossRef]
Jena, J. , and Misra, R. D. , 2014, “ Effect of Fuel Oxygen on the Energetic and Exergetic Efficiency of a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled Separately With Palm and Karanja Biodiesels,” Energy, 68, pp. 411–419. [CrossRef]
Lopez, I. , Quintana, C. E. , Ruiz, J. J. , Cruz-Peragon, F. , and Dorado, M. P. , 2014, “ Effect of the Use of Olive–Pomace Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Fuel Blends in a Compression Ignition Engine: Preliminary Exergy Analysis,” Energy Convers. Manage., 85, pp. 227–233. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , and Kyritsis, D. C. , 2006, “ Hydrogen Enrichment Effects on the Second Law Analysis of Natural and Landfill Gas Combustion in Engine Cylinders,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 31(10), pp. 1384–1393. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. D. , Scott, M. A. , Kyritsis, D. C. , and Giakoumis, E. G. , 2008, “ Availability Analysis of Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines,” Energy, 33(2), pp. 248–255. [CrossRef]
Hosseinzadeh, A. , Saray, R. K. , and Mahmoudi, S. M. S. , 2010, “ Comparison of Thermal, Radical and Chemical Effects of EGR Gases Using Availability Analysis in Dual-Fuel Engines at Part Loads,” Energy Convers. Manage., 51(11), pp. 2321–2329. [CrossRef]
Costa, Y. J. R. D. , Lima, A. G. B. D. , Filho, C. R. B. , and Liman, L. D. A. , 2012, “ Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(7), pp. 4651–4660. [CrossRef]
Chintala, V. , and Subramanian, K. A. , 2014, “ Assessment of Maximum Available Work of a Hydrogen Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine Using Exergy Analysis,” Energy, 67, pp. 162–175. [CrossRef]
Jafarmadar, S. , 2014, “ Exergy Analysis of Hydrogen/Diesel Combustion in a Dual Fuel Engine Using Three-Dimensional Model,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(17), pp. 9505–9514. [CrossRef]
Morsy, M. H. , 2015, “ Assessment of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fumigated With Ethanol/Water Mixtures,” Energy Convers. Manage., 94, pp. 406–414. [CrossRef]
Sahoo, B. B. , Saha, U. K. , and Sahoo, N. , 2011, “ Theoretical Performance Limits of a Syngas–Diesel Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine From Second Law Analysis,” Energy, 36(2), pp. 760–769. [CrossRef]
Sahoo, B. B. , Saha, U. K. , and Sahoo, N. , 2012, “ Diagnosing the Effects of Pilot Fuel Quality on Exergy Terms in a Biogas Run Dual Fuel Diesel Engine,” Int. J. Exergy, 10(1), pp. 77–93. [CrossRef]
Bora, B. J. , Debnath, B. K. , Gupta, N. , Sahoo, N. , and Saha, U. K. , 2013, “ Investigation on the Flow Behaviour of a Venturi Type Gas Mixer Designed for Dual Fuel Diesel Engines,” Int. J. Emerging Technol. Adv. Eng., 3(S3), pp. 202–209.
Giakoumis, E. G. , 2013, “ A Statistical Investigation of Biodiesel Physical and Chemical Properties and Their Correlation With the Degree of Unsaturation,” Renewable Energy, 50, pp. 858–878. [CrossRef]
Flynn, P. F. , Hoag, K. L. , Kamel, M. M. , and Primus, R. J. , 1984, “ A New Perspective on Diesel Engine Evaluation Based on Second Law Analysis,” SAE Paper No. 840032.
Kotas, T. J. , 1985, The Exergy Method of Thermal Power Plant Analysis, Butterworths, London.
Stepanov, V. S. , 1995, “ Chemical Energies and Exergies of Fuels,” Energy, 20(3), pp. 235–242. [CrossRef]
Ebiana, A. B. , Savadekar, R. T. , and Patel, K. V. , 2005, “ Entropy Generation/Availability Energy Loss Analysis Inside MIT Gas Spring and ‘Two Space’ Test Rigs,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-5675.
Moffat, R. J. , 1982, “ Contributions to the Theory of Single-Sample Uncertainty Analysis,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 104(2), pp. 250–264. [CrossRef]
Bora, B. J. , and Saha, U. K. , “ On the attainment of the optimum injection timing of pilot fuel of a dual fuel diesel engine run on biogas,” Paper No. ESDA2014-20162, Proceeding of ASME 12th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, June 25–27, 2014, Copenhagen, Denmark.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effect of CR and IT on energy analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effect of CR and IT on exergy analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of CR and IT on emission analysis



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In