Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Assessing Cogeneration Activity in Extraction–Condensing Steam Turbines: Dissolving the Issues by Applied Thermodynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Aviel Verbruggen

Department of Engineering Management,
University of Antwerp,
Prinsstraat 13,
Antwerp 2000, Belgium
e-mail: aviel.verbruggen@uantwerpen.be

Jiří Jaromír Klemeš

Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics,
Pázmány Péter Catholic University,
Práter u. 50/a,
Budapest 1083, Hungary
e-mail: klemes.jiri@itk.ppke.hu

Marc A. Rosen

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: marc.rosen@uoit.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 6, 2015; final manuscript received April 2, 2016; published online May 12, 2016. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(5), 052005 (May 12, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4033424 History: Received May 06, 2015; Revised April 02, 2016

Extraction–condensing steam turbines mix cold-condensing and cogeneration activities making the respective power and fuel flows not directly observable. A flawed assessment of the flows is causing confusion and bias. A steam expansion path on a Mollier diagram reveals the design characteristics of a thermal power plant and of its embedded combined heat and power (CHP) activities. State variable data on a unit mass of steam, entering the turboset as life steam and leaving it at one of the heat extraction exhausts, provide the roster of the power-heat production possibility set of the plant. The actual production possibilities are drawn from the roster by applying capacity data and constraints on the heat extraction points. Design power-to-heat ratios of CHP activities are univocally identified, allowing accurate assessments of cogenerated power. This information is needed for proper incentive regulation of CHP activities, pursuing maximization of CHP quality and quantity. Quality is gauged by the power-to-heat ratio, principally a design (investment) decision. Quantity is gauged by the operational amounts of recovered heat exhausts. Optimal regulatory specificity is attained through setting generic frameworks by technology, accommodating investment and operational decisions by plant owners. Our novel method is explained and applied with numerical data, also revealing the flaws in present regulations.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Example of steam expansion in a Mollier diagram with a reheat step and two hot condensers (situated at S1 and S2) in addition to the cold condenser (S0). The source of the background Mollier-diagram is engineeringtoolbox.com.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(E,Q) production possibilities in kJ/kg of the Rankine cycle example steam expansion and extractions, as shown in Fig. 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Extraction–condensing steam turbine: truncated form of the (E,Q) production possibilities for a maximum steam mass flow of 60 kg/s over both hot condensers S1 and S2



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