Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Comparison of Near-Nozzle Spray Performance of Gas-to-Liquid and Jet A-1 Fuels Using Shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Anemometry

[+] Author and Article Information
Kumaran Kannaiyan

Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University at Qatar,
Education city,
Doha 23874, Qatar

Reza Sadr

Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: reza.sadr@qatar.tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 8, 2017; final manuscript received January 24, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072009 (Mar 29, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1693; doi: 10.1115/1.4039271 History: Received December 08, 2017; Revised January 24, 2018

The gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel, a liquid fuel synthesized from natural gas through Fischer–Tropsch process, exhibits better combustion and, in turn, lower emission characteristics than the conventional jet fuels. However, the GTL fuel has different fuel properties than those of regular jet fuels, which could potentially affect its atomization and combustion aspects. The objective of the present work is to investigate the near-nozzle atomization characteristics of GTL fuel and compare them with those of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The spray experiments are conducted at different nozzle operating conditions under standard ambient conditions. The near-nozzle macroscopic spray characteristics are determined from the shadowgraph images. Near the nozzle exit, a thorough statistical analysis shows that the liquid sheet dynamics of GTL fuel is different from that of Jet A-1 fuel. However, further downstream, the microscopic spray characteristics of GTL fuel are comparable to those of the Jet A-1 fuel.

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Fig. 1

Graphical representation of the optically accessible spray facility

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Fig. 2

Averaging of instantaneous cross-correlations [13]

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Fig. 3

The instantaneous images of GTL (top) and Jet A-1 (bottom) fuels highlighting the difference in their liquid sheet breakup length at Rep of 13,700

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the second-order moment (i.e., standard deviation, √σI2) of the image intensities at Rep of 13,700 (left) and 27,450 (right)

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Fig. 5

Axial variation (at r/Dn = 0) in standard deviation of the image intensities of GTL and Jet A-1 fuels at Rep of 13,700 (top) and 27,450 (bottom)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of contours of kurtosis of GTL (top) and Jet A-1 (bottom) fuels at (a) Rep = 13,700 and (b) Rep = 27,450

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Fig. 7

Axial variation in liquid sheet velocities at r/Dn = 0 for GTL and Jet A-1 fuels at Rep = 13,700 (top) and 27,450 (bottom)

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Fig. 8

Data rate profiles' variation at Rep = 13,700 for GTL and Jet A-1 fuels at different axial locations

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Fig. 9

Comparison of Sauter mean diameter of GTL and Jet A-1 fuels at Rep = 13,700



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