Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effect of Retarded Injection Timing on Knock Resistance and Cycle to Cycle Variation in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Lei Zhou, Aifang Shao, Jianxiong Hua, Dengquan Feng

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China

Haiqiao Wei

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: whq@tju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 6, 2017; final manuscript received January 26, 2018; published online February 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Avinash Kumar Agarwal.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072202 (Feb 27, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1412; doi: 10.1115/1.4039322 History: Received August 06, 2017; Revised January 26, 2018

In spark ignition engines, gasoline direct injection (GDI) is surely the most attractive technology to achieve the demand of high energy efficiency by directly injecting fuel into combustion chamber. This work, as a preliminary study, investigates the effect of retarded injection timing on knock resistance and cycle-to-cycle variation in gasoline engine by experimental method. The retarded injection timing during compression stroke coupled with increased intake air temperature was employed to concentrate on suppressing knock occurrence with stable combustion. Based on the great advantage of injection timing retard on knock suppression, intake temperature was used in this work to reduce cycle-to-cycle variation. In addition, piezo-electrically actuated injector was employed. The results show that injection timing retard during compression stroke can significantly suppress the knock tendency, but combustion becomes unstable and cycle-to-cycle variation is larger than 10%. Thus, increasing intake temperature decreased the cycle-to-cycle variation but increased significantly the knock tendency, as expect. Meanwhile, rich fuel–air mixture in this work also had the same effect as intake temperature did. It can be concluded that retarded injection timing is of significant potential to suppress the knock in GDI engine, although the high intake temperature causes high probability of large knock occurrence. The percentages of knock at the spark timings of 24 °CA before top dead center (BTDC) and 26 °CA BTDC were significantly reduced from approximately 40% to 7% and from approximately 60% to 10%, respectively. Furthermore, the retarded injection timing not only reduced the probability of knock occurrence, but also decreased the knock intensity obviously.

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Fig. 3

Torque and cycle-to-cycle variation versus spark timing for different injection timings at ϕ=1.0 and intake temperature of 30 °C

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Fig. 2

Knock tendency versus spark timing and mass fraction burned of 20 °CA BTDC for various SOI timings at equivalence ratio of 1.0 (ϕ=1.0) and intake temperature of 30 °C

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup of single-cylinder gasoline engine

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Fig. 4

Knock tendency and cycle-to-cycle variation versus spark timing for three intake temperatures at ϕ=1.0 and injection timing of 120 °CA BTDC with injected fuel mass as same as the condition of intake temperature of 30 °C

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Fig. 5

Percentages of knock (a) and cycle-to-cycle variation (b) versus spark timing for three intake temperatures and different injection timings with the same injected fuel mass at three intake temperatures

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Fig. 6

Torque and cycle-to-cycle variation for different retarded injection timings at different intake temperatures and spark timing of 24 °CA BTDC

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Fig. 7

Average temperatures versus crank angle, and CA10/CA50 for different injection timings and intake temperatures at spark timing of 24 °CA BTDC

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Fig. 8

Maximum amplitude of filtered pressure oscillations distribution for different injection timings and intake temperatures at the spark timings of 24 °CA BTDC and 26 °CA BTDC



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