Research Papers: Energy From Biomass

Enhanced Biogas Production in the Duckweed Anaerobic Digestion Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongyan Ren

School of Environment and Civil Engineering,
Jiangnan University,
Wuxi 214122, China;
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of
Anaerobic Biotechnology,
Jiangnan University,
Wuxi 214122, China
e-mail: renhongyan@jiangnan.edu.cn

Nan Jiang

School of Environment and Civil Engineering,
Jiangnan University,
Wuxi 214122, China
e-mail: jiangnan715721@126.com

Tao Wang

School of Environment and Civil Engineering,
Jiangnan University,
Wuxi 214122, China
e-mail: 7121401007@vip.jiangnan.edu.cn

M. Mubashar Omar

Department of Farm Machinery and Power,
Faculty of Agricultural
Engineering and Technology,
University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
e-mail: mubi_mahmood@yahoo.com

Wenquan Ruan

School of Environment and Civil Engineering,
Jiangnan University,
Wuxi 214122, China
e-mail: wqruan@jiangnan.edu.cn

Abdul Ghafoor

Department of Farm Machinery and Power,
Faculty of Agricultural
Engineering and Technology,
University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
e-mail: abdul.ghafoor@uaf.edu.pk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 31, 2017; final manuscript received March 24, 2018; published online April 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yaning Zhang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(4), 041805 (Apr 16, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1255; doi: 10.1115/1.4039782 History: Received May 31, 2017; Revised March 24, 2018

In order to enhance biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of duckweed, and duckweed with excess sludge as single and mixed substrates, the effects of hot alkali pretreatment and variation of the ratio of substrate to inoculum were investigated. The results showed that the delayed stage of anaerobic gas generation could be shortened when the two substrates were mixed during methane production, to give a cumulative gas yield of 2963 mL, which was 11% higher than the calculated value for the complementary substrate. The methane content was 57%, which was 13% higher than that from the duckweed group and 9% higher than from the excess sludge group. Furthermore, the methane yield was improved by 8% after the duckweed was pretreated with hot alkali. When the substrate to inoculum ratio was 1:1, the maximum biogas production of 3309 mL was achieved, with a methane yield of 1883 mL which, respectively, increases of 151 mL and 304 mL compared with the worst group (1:2.5).

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Biogas , Methane , Proteins
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Judson, R. A. , Schmalensee, R. , and Stoker, T. M. , 1999, “ Economic Development and the Structure of the Demand for Commercial Energy,” Energy J., 20(2), pp. 29–57. [CrossRef]
Chandran, K. P. V. , and Sandhya, P. , 2010, “ Climate Change: A Threat to Human Health,” MPRA Paper No. 27081.
Höök, M. , and Xu, T. , 2013, “ Depletion of Fossil Fuels and Anthropogenic Climate Change—A Review,” Energy Policy, 52(1), pp. 797–809. [CrossRef]
Asadieraghi, M. , and Wan, M. A. W. D. , 2014, “ Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermal Degradation and Physiochemical Structure: Effects of Demineralization by Diverse Acid Solutions,” Energy Convers. Manage., 82(6), pp. 71–82. [CrossRef]
Widiasa, I. N. , and Sunarso, S. , 2010, “ Increasing Biogas Production Rate From Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums,” Int. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 10(1), pp. 68–75.
Dabral, S. , Nishimura, S. , and Ebitani, K. , 2014, “ One-Pot Conversions of Raffinose Into Furfural Derivatives and Sugar Alcohols by Using Heterogeneous Catalysts,” ChemSusChem, 7(1), pp. 260–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kanoun-Boule, M. , Vicente, J. , Nabais, C. M. , and Freitas, H. , 2009, “ Ecophysiological Tolerance of Duckweeds Exposed to Copper,” Aquat. Toxicol., 91(1), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Xue, Y. , Zhao, X. , Huang, J. , and Song, Y. , 2014, “ Chemical Forms, Subcellular Distribution and Binding Protein Components of Cadmium in Duckweed Lemna Minor L.: Recovery From Cadmium Exposure,” Agrochimica, 58(1), pp. 90–101.
Ge, X. , Zhang, N. , Phillips, G. C. , and Xu, J. , 2012, “ Growing Lemna Minor in Agricultural Wastewater and Converting the Duckweed Biomass to Ethanol,” Bioresour. Technol., 124(337), pp. 485–488. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gu, X. Y. , 2014, Study on Duckweed Used for Wastewater Purification and Biogas Fermentation, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (in Chinese).
Alkalay, D. , Guerrero, L. , Lema, J. M. , Mendez, R. , and Chamy, R. , 1998, “ Review: Anaerobic Treatment of Municipal Sanitary Landfill Leachates: The Problem of Refractory and Toxic Components,” World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 14(3), pp. 309–320. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y. , Yang, L. L. , Ruan, W. Q. , and Zhao, M. X. , 2015, “ Evaluation of the Hydrolysis Performance in the Kitchen Waste and Excess Sludge Anaerobic Co-Digestion Process,” Environ. Technol. Rev., 4(1), pp. 149–157. [CrossRef]
Xu, J. , Cui, W. , Cheng, J. J. , and Stomp, A. M. , 2011, “ Production of High-Starch Duckweed and Its Conversion to Bioethanol,” Biosyst. Eng., 110(2), pp. 67–72. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Zhang, Z. , Chen, F. , Zhang, H. , and Hu, X. , 2011, “ Effect of Biological Pretreatments in Enhancing Corn Straw Biogas Production,” Bioresour. Technol., 102(24), pp. 11177–11182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mendez, L. , Mahdy, A. , Timmers, R. A. , Ballesteros, M. , and González-Fernández, C. , 2013, “ Enhancing Methane Production of Chlorella Vulgaris Via Thermochemical Pretreatments,” Bioresour. Technol., 149(4), pp. 136–141. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gao, J. , Chen, L. , Yan, Z. C. , and Wang, L. , 2013, “ Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Composition, Structure and Biogas Production of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes),” Bioresour. Technol., 132(3), pp. 361–364. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zeng, S. , Yuan, X. , Shi, X. , and Qiu, Y. , 2010, “ Effect of Inoculum/Substrate Ratio on Methane Yield and Orthophosphate Release From Anaerobic Digestion of Microcystis spp,” J. Hazard. Mater., 178(1–3), pp. 89–93. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Liu, G. , Zhang, R. , El-Mashad, H. M. , and Dong, R. , 2009, “ Effect of Feed to Inoculum Ratios on Biogas Yields of Food and Green Wastes,” Bioresour. Technol., 100(21), pp. 5103–5108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhao, M. X. , and Ruan, W. Q. , 2013, “ Biogas Performance From Co-Digestion of Taihu Algae and Kitchen Wastes,” Energy Convers. Manage., 75, pp. 21–24. [CrossRef]
APHA, 1999, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Lowry, O. H. , Rosebrough, N. J. , Farr, A. L. , and Randall, R. J. , 1951, “ Protein Measurement With the Folin Phenol Reagent,” J. Biol. Chem., 193(1), pp. 265–275. [PubMed]
Aquino, S. F. , and Stuckey, D. C. , 2004, “ Soluble Microbial Products Formation in Anaerobic Chemostats in the Presence of Toxic Compounds,” Water Res., 38(2), pp. 255–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Feng, H. , Hu, L. , Mahmood, Q. , Fang, C. , Qiu, C. , and Shen, D. , 2009, “ Effects of Temperature and Feed Strength on a Carrier Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Dilute Wastewater,” Desalination, 239(1–3), pp. 111–121. [CrossRef]
Zhang, B. , He, P. J. , Lü, F. , Shao, L. M. , and Wang, P. , 2007, “ Extracellular Enzyme Activities During Regulated Hydrolysis of High-Solid Organic Wastes,” Water Res., 41(19), pp. 4468–4478. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jiang, X. Y. , Song, X. H. , Chen, Y. H. , and Zhang, W. N. , 2014, “ Research on Biogas Production Potential of Aquatic Plants,” Renewable Energy, 69, pp. 97–102. [CrossRef]
Zhao, Y. F. , Liu, X. L. , and Li, S. Z. , 2011, “ Characteristics of High-Solids Anaerobic Co-Fermentation for Converting Food Waste and Excess Sludge to Biogas,” Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng., 27(10), pp. 255–260.
Rincón, S. L. , and Cendales, E. D. , 2016, “ Experimental Investigation of Biogas Production From Citrus Waste: Co-Digestion With Cattle Manure,” Global Nest J., 18(3), pp. 516–526.
Jeyaseelan, S. , 1997, “ A Simple Mathematical Model for Anaerobic Digestion Process,” Water Sci. Technol., 35(8), pp. 185–191.
Wang, S. , Hawkins, G. L. , Kiepper, B. H. , and Das, K. C. , 2016, “ Struvite Precipitation as a Means of Recovering Nutrients and Mitigating Ammonia Toxicity in a Two-Stage Anaerobic Digester Treating Protein-Rich Feedstocks,” Molecules, 21(8), p. 1011. [CrossRef]
Yi, X. , Luo, K. , Yang, Q. , Li, X. M. , Deng, W. G. , Cheng, H. B. , Wang, Z. L. , and Zeng, G. M. , 2013, “ Enhanced Hydrolysis and Acidification of Waste Activated Sludge by Biosurfactant Rhamnolipid,” Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 171(6), pp. 1416–1428. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Masoud, K. , 1994, “ Performance of a High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion Process Under Various Ammonia Concentrations,” J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., 59(4), pp. 359–352. [CrossRef]
Appels, L. , Assche, A. V. , Willems, K. , Degrève, J. , Impe, J. V. , and Dewil, R. , 2011, “ Peracetic Acid Oxidation as an Alternative Pre-Treatment for the Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge,” Bioresour. Technol., 102(5), pp. 4124–4130. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, D. , Fu, X. , Jia, S. , Dai, L. L. , Wu, B. , and Da, X. H. , 2016, “ Excess Sludge and Herbaceous Plant Co-Digestion for Volatile Fatty Acids Generation Improved by Protein and Cellulose Conversion Enhancement,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23(2), pp. 1492–1504. [CrossRef]
Morgan-Sagastume, F. , Pratt, S. , Karlsson, A. , Cirne, D. , Lant, P. , and Werker, A. , 2011, “ Production of Volatile Fatty Acids by Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge Pre-Treated in Full-Scale Thermal Hydrolysis Plants,” Bioresour. Technol., 102(3), pp. 3089–3097. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jian-Chang, L. , Juan, H. E. , Yuan, Y. G. , Sun, K. W. , Liu, S. Q. , and Zhang, W. D. , 2013, “ Relationship Between α-Amylase Activity and Biogas Rate During Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(6L), pp. 28–31 (in Chinese).
Sarada, R. , and Joseph, R. , 1993, “ Biochemical Changes During Anaerobic Digestion of Tomato Processing Waste,” Process Biochem., 28(7), pp. 461–466. [CrossRef]
Pakarinen, A. , Kymalainen, M. , Stoddard, F. L. , and Viikari, L. , 2012, “ Conversion of Carbohydrates in Herbaceous Crops During Anaerobic Digestion,” J. Agric. Food Chem., 60(32), pp. 7934–7940. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of anaerobic digestion apparatus to produce biogas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Variation of daily gas yield for three different substrates during anaerobic digestion process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effect of different substrates on total biogas and methane yield and compositions of CH4 and CO2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Changes of VFAs concentration and pH on anaerobic digestion of three substrates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Changes of NH4+–N (a) and sCOD concentration and (b) during anaerobic digestion of three substrates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Changes of dehydrogenase (a) and amylase activity and (b) during anaerobic digestion of three substrates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Changes of protein (a) and carbohydrates concentration and (b) during anaerobic digestion of three substrates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of daily gas yield (a) and gas composition (b) during anaerobic digestion using pretreatment and untreated group

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of daily gas yield (a) and gas composition (b) during anaerobic digestion of different substrates and inoculum ratios



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In