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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Downhole Transient Flow Field and Heat Transfer Characteristics During Drilling With Liquid Nitrogen Jet

[+] Author and Article Information
Chengzheng Cai

State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and
Deep Underground Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: caichmily@163.com

Yugui Yang

State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and
Deep Underground Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: ygyang2009@126.com

Jiangfeng Liu

State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and
Deep Underground Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: jeafliu@hotmail.com

Feng Gao

State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and
Deep Underground Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: fgao@cumt.edu.cn

Yanan Gao

State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and
Deep Underground Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: yngao@cumt.edu.cn

Zhizhen Zhang

State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and
Deep Underground Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: zzzhang@cumt.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 12, 2018; final manuscript received May 30, 2018; published online July 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(12), 122902 (Jul 02, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1121; doi: 10.1115/1.4040531 History: Received February 12, 2018; Revised May 30, 2018

As a novel jet technology, liquid nitrogen jet (LNJ) is expected to effectively break rocks and further provide a high-efficiency method for drilling, especially geothermal drilling. Using this technology, rocks can be broken down by the coupled effects of cryogenic cooling and jet impingement. In this study, transient downhole jet flow field and heat transfer during drilling with LNJ were simulated. Then, the distributions of temperature (including LNJ and ambient rock), velocity, and pressure at different times were analyzed. Finally, the effects of the parameters on jet impingement and rock cooling performance were discussed. Results indicated that cryogenic LNJ could be efficiently generated in the downhole region. The temperature of the rock surface remarkably decreased as the LNJ reached the bottomhole. The high-speed LNJ caused axial impingement and radial shear effects on the bottomhole rock. The rock cooling performance caused by the LNJ was influenced by the initial rock temperature. With the increase of the initial rock temperature, the drop amplitude of the rock temperature also increased. The impingement capability of the LNJ was improved by increasing the nozzle diameter and the nozzle pressure drop. With the increase of standoff distance, the wall pressure and the radial velocity of the bottomhole decreased while increasing the impingement scope. The confining pressure hardly influenced the rock cooling performance and jet impingement capability, thereby indicating that LNJ could work even at high confining pressure conditions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the geometric model for liquid nitrogen flow field and heat transfer

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Fig. 2

Temperature of the bottomhole center for LNJ steady flow field at different mesh interval sizes

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Fig. 3

Downhole temperature contours of LNJ flow field and ambient rock at different times: (a) 0.0001 s, (b) 0.001 s, (c) 0.01 s, (d) 0.1 s, (e) 1 s, and (f) 10 s

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Fig. 4

Temperature distributions of LNJ flow field and rock along the axis at different times

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Fig. 5

Bottomhole center temperature of ambient rock at different times

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Fig. 6

Temperature distributions of the bottomhole rock along the radial direction at different times

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Fig. 7

Downhole velocity contours of LNJ flow field at different times: (a) 0.0001 s, (b) 0.001 s, (c) 0.01 s, (d) 0.1 s, (e) 1 s, and (f) 10 s

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Fig. 8

Axial velocity distributions of LNJ along the axis at different times

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Fig. 9

Bottomhole radial velocity distributions of LNJ along the radial direction at different times

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Fig. 10

Maximum axial and radial velocities of LNJ at different times

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Fig. 11

Downhole pressure contours of LNJ flow field at different times: (a) 0.0001 s, (b) 0.001 s, (c) 0.01 s, (d) 0.1 s, (e) 1 s, and (f) 10 s

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Fig. 12

Bottomhole pressure distributions of LNJ along the radial direction at different times

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Fig. 13

Rock temperature distributions along the axis at different nozzle pressure drops

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Fig. 14

Wall pressure distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different nozzle pressure drops

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Fig. 15

Radial velocity distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different nozzle pressure drops

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Fig. 16

Rock temperature distributions along the axis at different nozzle diameters

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Fig. 17

Wall pressure distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different nozzle diameters

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Fig. 18

Radial velocity distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different nozzle diameters

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Fig. 19

Rock temperature distributions along the axis at different standoff distances

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Fig. 20

Wall pressure distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different standoff distances

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Fig. 21

Radial velocity distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different standoff distances

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Fig. 22

Rock temperature distributions along the axis at different confining pressures

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Fig. 23

Temperature drop of rock along the axis at different initial rock temperatures

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Fig. 24

Wall pressure distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different confining pressures

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Fig. 25

Radial velocity distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different confining pressures

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Fig. 26

Wall pressure distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different initial rock temperatures

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Fig. 27

Radial velocity distributions of the bottomhole along the radial direction at different initial rock temperatures

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