0
Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effect of Operational Parameters on Combustion and Emissions in an Industrial Gas Turbine Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohsen D. Emami

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Isfahan University of Technology,
Isfahan 84156-8311, Iran
e-mail: mohsen@cc.iut.ac.ir

Hamidreza Shahbazian

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Isfahan University of Technology,
Tehran 1476655961, Iran
e-mails: Hamidreza.Shahbazian@energy.lth.se;
Hr_Shahbazian@me.iut.ac.ir

Bengt Sunden

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
Lund 22100, Sweden
e-mail: Bengt.Sunden@energy.lth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 6, 2018; final manuscript received May 30, 2018; published online July 23, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(1), 012202 (Jul 23, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1193; doi: 10.1115/1.4040532 History: Received April 06, 2018; Revised May 30, 2018

Enhancing a combustion system requires increased combustion efficiency, fuel savings, and reduction of combustion emissions. In this paper, the combustion of CH4 in the combustor of an industrial gas turbine is studied and NO and CO formation/emission is simulated numerically. The objective of the current work is to investigate the influence of combustive parameters and varying the percentage of distributed air flow rate via burning, recirculation, and dilution zone on the reactive flow characteristics, NOx and CO emissions. The governing equations of mass, momentum, energy, turbulence quantities Renormalized group (RNG) (k–ε), mixture fraction and its variance are solved by the finite volume method. The formation and emission of NOx is numerically simulated in a postprocessing fashion, due to the low concentration of the pollutants as compared to the main combustion species. The present work focuses on different physical mechanisms of NOx formation. The thermal-NOx and prompt-NOx mechanism are considered for modeling the NOx source term in the transport equation. Results show that in a gaseous-fueled combustor, the thermal NOx is the dominant mechanism for NOx formation. Particularly, the simulation provides more insight into the correlation between the maximum combustor temperature, exhaust average temperatures, and the thermal NO concentration. Results indicate that the exhaust temperature and NOx concentration decrease while the excess air factor increases. Moreover, results demonstrate that as the combustion air temperature increases, the combustor temperature increases and the thermal NOx concentration increases dramatically. Furthermore, results demonstrate that the NO concentration at the combustor exit is at maximum value in a swirl angle of 55 deg and a gradual rise in the NOx concentration is detected as the combustion fuel temperature increases. In addition, results demonstrate that the air distribution of the first case at laboratory conditions is optimal where the mass fractions of NO and CO are minimum.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Meunier, H. , Costa, M. , and Carvalho, M. G. , 1998, “ The Formation and Destruction of NO in Turbulent Propane Diffusion Flames,” Fuel, 77(15), pp. 1705–1714. [CrossRef]
Barths, N. , Peters, H. , Brehm, N. , Mack, A. , Pfitzner, M. , and Smiljanovski, V. , 1998, “ Simulation of Pollutant Formation in a Gas-Turbine Combustor Using Unsteady Flamelets,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 27(2), pp. 1841–1847. [CrossRef]
Sharma, N. Y. , and Som, S. K. , 2004, “ Influence of Fuel Volatility and Spray Parameters on Combustion Characteristics and NOx Emission in a Gas Turbine Combustor,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(5–6), pp. 885–903. [CrossRef]
Loffler, G. , Sieber, R. , Harasek, M. , Hofbauer, H. , Hauss, R. , and Landauf, J. , 2006, “ NOx Formation in Natural Gas Combustion—A New Simplified Reaction Scheme for CFD Calculations,” Fuel, 85(4), pp. 513–523. [CrossRef]
Biagioli, F. , and Güthe, F. , 2007, “ Effect of Pressure and Fuel–Air Unmixedness on NOx Emissions From Industrial Gas Turbine Burner,” Combust. Flame, 151(1–2), pp. 274–288. [CrossRef]
Benini, E. , Pandolfo, S. , and Zoppellari, S. , 2009, “ Reduction of NO Emissions in a Turbojet Combustor by Direct Water/Steam Injection: Numerical and Experimental Assessment,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(17–18), pp. 3506–3510. [CrossRef]
Fichet, V. , Kanniche, M. , Plion, P. , and Gicquel, O. , 2010, “ A Reactor Network Model for Predicting NOx Emissions in Gas Turbines,” Fuel, 89(9), pp. 2202–2210. [CrossRef]
Khoshhal, A. , Rahimi, M. , and Alsairafi, A. A. , 2011, “ CFD Study on Influence of Fuel Temperature on NOx Emission in a HiTAC Furnace,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(10), pp. 1421–1427. [CrossRef]
Khalil, A. E. E. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2011, “ Distributed Swirl Combustion for Gas Turbine Application,” Appl. Energy, 88(12), pp. 4898–4907. [CrossRef]
Gobbato, P. , Masi, M. , Toffolo, A. , Lazzaretto, A. , and Tanzini, G. , 2012, “ Calculation of the Flow Field and NOx Emissions of a Gas Turbine Combustor by a Coarse Computational Fluid Dynamics Model,” Energy, 45(1), pp. 445–455. [CrossRef]
Kruse, S. , Kerschgens, B. , Berger, L. , Varea, E. , and Pitsch, H. , 2015, “ Experimental and Numerical Study of MILD Combustion for Gas Turbine Applications,” Appl. Energy, 148(15), pp. 456–465. [CrossRef]
Said, A. O. , Khalil, A. E. E. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2016, “ Dual-Location Fuel Injection Effects on Emissions and NO/OH Chemiluminescence in a High Intensity Combustor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(4), p. 042208. [CrossRef]
Khalil, A. E. E. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2014, “ Dual Injection Distributed Combustion for Gas Turbine Application,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 011601. [CrossRef]
Khalil, A. E. E. , Gupta, A. K. , Bryden, K. M. , and Lee, S. C. , 2012, “ Mixture Preparation Effects on Distributed Combustion for Gas Turbine Applications,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(3), p. 032201. [CrossRef]
Farokhipour, A. , Hamidpour, E. , and Amani, E. , 2018, “ A Numerical Study of NOx Reduction by Water Spray Injection in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers,” Fuel, 212, pp. 173–186. [CrossRef]
Asgari, B. , and Amani, E. , 2017, “ A Multi-Objective CFD Optimization of Liquid Fuel Spray Injection in Dry-Low-Emission Gas-Turbine Combustors,” Appl. Energy, 203, pp. 696–710. [CrossRef]
Love, N. D. , Parthasarathy, R. N. , and Gollahalli, S. R. , 2009, “ Rapid Characterization of Radiation and Pollutant Emissions of Biodiesel and Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuels,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(1), p. 012202. [CrossRef]
Tahmasebzadehbaie, M. , and Sayyaadi, H. , 2016, “ Efficiency Enhancement and NOx Emission Reduction of a Turbo-Compressor Gas Engine by Mass and Heat Recirculation of Flue Gases,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 99, pp. 661–671. [CrossRef]
Sanusi Yi, S. , Habib, M. A. , and Mokheimer, E. M. A. , 2015, “ Experimental Study on the Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment of Methane on the Stability and Emission of Non-Premixed Swirl Stabilized Combustor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(3), p. 032203. [CrossRef]
Al-Malak, A. , Elshafei, M. , Habib, M. A. , and Al-Zaharnah, I. , 2016, “ Soft Analyzer for Monitoring NOx Emissions From a Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(3), p. 031101. [CrossRef]
Gubba, S. R. , Ingham, D. B. , Larsen, K. J. , Ma, L. , Pourkashanian, M. , and Tan, H. Z. , 2012, “ Numerical Modelling of the Co-Firing of Pulverised Coal and Straw in a 300 MWe Tangentially Fired Boiler,” Fuel Process. Technol., 104, pp. 181–188. [CrossRef]
Li, S. , Fu, Z. , Duan, X. , Cheng, C. , Shen, Y. , Liu, B. , and Wang, R. , 2016, “ Influence of Combustion System Retrofit on NOx Formation Characteristics in a 300 MW Tangentially Fired Furnace,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 98, pp. 766–777. [CrossRef]
Hashemi, S. A. , Fattahi, A. , Sheikhzadeh, G. A. , and Mehrabian, M. A. , 2011, “ Investigation of the Effect of Air Turbulence Intensity on NOx Emission in Non-Premixed Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Hydrocarbon Composite Fuel Combustion,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(16), pp. 10159–10168. [CrossRef]
Miller, J. A. , and Bowman, C. , 1989, “ Mechanism and Modeling of Nitrogen Chemistry in Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 15(4), pp. 287–388. [CrossRef]
Baulch, D. L. , Bowers, M. , Malcolm, D. G. , and Tuckerman, R. T. , 1986, “ Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 15(2), p. 46510. [CrossRef]
Westbrook, C. K. , and Dryer, F. L. , 1984, “ Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrocarbon Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 10(1), pp. 1–57. [CrossRef]
Williams, B. A. , Sutton, J. A. , and Fleming, J. W. , 2009, “ The Role of Methylene in Prompt NO Formation,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(1), pp. 343–350. [CrossRef]
Kim, N. , and Kim, Y. , 2017, “ Multi-Environment Probability Density Function Approach for Turbulent Partially-Premixed Methane/Air Flame With Inhomogeneous Inlets,” Combust. Flame, 182, pp. 190–205. [CrossRef]
Correa, S. M. , and Gulati, A. , 1994, “ Raman Measurements and Joint PDF Modeling of a Non-Premixed Bluff-Body Stabilization Methane Flame,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 25(1), pp. 1167–1173. [CrossRef]
Habib, M. A. , Elshafei, M. , and Dajani, M. , 2008, “ Influence of Combustion Parameters on NOx Production in an Industrial Boiler,” Comput. Fluids, 37(1), pp. 12–23. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of a Gas Turbine combustion chamber

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A schematic view of the combustion chamber in the case study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Computational combustion chamber: (a) configuration and (b) structured meshes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of the combustion chamber with bluff body flame [29]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Radial profiles of CH4 mass fraction at x = 0.0736

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Radial profiles of O2 mass fraction at x = 0.0736

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Radial profiles of temperature at x = 0.0736

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Three-dimensional stream lines in the combustion chamber: (a) from burning zone and dilution zone and (b) from recirculation zone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Predicted contours of mixture fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Predicted contours of mixture fraction variance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Predicted contours of CH4 mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Predicted contour of O2 mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Predicted contours of CO2 mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Predicted contours of H2O mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Predicted contours of N2 mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Predicted contours of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Predicted contours of thermal NOx mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Predicted contours of prompt NOx mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Predicted contours of thermal and prompt NOx mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Influence of excess air on the temperature, NOx and CO mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Influence of combustion air temperature on the temperature, NOx and CO mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Influence of swirl angle on the temperature, NOx and CO mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Influence of fuel temperature on the temperature, NOx and CO mass fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Temperature distributions and 3D stream lines in the combustion chamber: (a) case 1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3, (d) case 4, (e) case 5, (f) case 6, (g) case 7, and (h) case 8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Effect of different airflow distribution

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In