Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Particulate Bound Trace Metals and Soot Morphology of Gasohol Fueled Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Nikhil Sharma

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur 208016, India

Rashmi A. Agarwal

Department of Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 13, 2018; final manuscript received June 8, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(2), 022201 (Aug 20, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1267; doi: 10.1115/1.4040580 History: Received April 13, 2018; Revised June 08, 2018

Direct injection spark ignition or gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are superior in terms of relatively higher thermal efficiency and power output compared to multipoint port fuel injection engines and direct injection diesel engines. In this study, a 500 cc single cylinder GDI engine was used for experiments. Three gasohol blends (15% (v/v) ethanol/methanol/butanol with 85% (v/v) gasoline) were chosen for this experimental study and were characterized to determine their important fuel properties. For particulate investigations, exhaust particles were collected on a quartz filter paper using a partial flow dilution tunnel. Comparative investigations for particulate mass emissions, trace metal concentrations, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) imaging of the particulate samples collected from different test fuels at different engine loads were performed. For majority of the experimental conditions, gasohols showed relatively lower trace metal concentration in particulates compared to gasoline. HR-TEM images showed that higher engine loads and presence of oxygen in the test fuels increased the soot reactivity. Multicore shells like structures were visible in the HR-TEM images due to growth of nuclei, and rapid soot formation due to relatively higher temperature and pressure environment of the engine combustion chamber. Researches world-over are trying to reduce particulate emissions from GDI engines; however there is a vast research gap for such investigations related to gasohol fueled GDI engines. This paper critically assesses and highlights comparative morphological characteristics of gasohol fueled GDI engine.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Experimental strategy for comparative particulate analysis from GDI Engine

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Fig. 3

Particulate mass emissions at different engine loads

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Fig. 4

Smoke opacity at different engine loads

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Fig. 5

Trace metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg) in particulates from gasohol fueled GDI engine at varying engine loads

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Fig. 6

Trace metals (Zn, Ba, K, Na) in particulates from gasohol fueled GDI engine at varying engine loads

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Fig. 7

Trace metals (Ag, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr) in particulates from gasohol fueled GDI engine at varying engine loads

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Fig. 8

Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr) in particulates from gasohol fueled GDI engine at varying engine loads

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Fig. 9

Raman shift for particulates from various test fuels at 50% engine load

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Fig. 10

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of soot samples drawn from GDI engine using gasohols

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Fig. 11

(a) High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of soot from different test fuels at part load (50% engine load) and (b) HRTEM images of soot from different test fuels at full load (100% engine load)

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Fig. 12

High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images of soot particles and corresponding EDS elemental mapping images



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