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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

A Study of Power Production and Noise Generation of a Small Wind Turbine for an Urban Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Hays

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Baylor University,
One Bear Place #97356,
Waco, TX 76798-7356

Kenneth W. Van Treuren

Professor
Associate Dean for Research
and Faculty Development,
School of Engineering and Computer Science,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Baylor University,
One Bear Place #97356,
Waco, TX 76798-7356
e-mail: Kenneth_Van_Treuren@baylor.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 1, 2018; final manuscript received September 9, 2018; published online January 9, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(5), 051202 (Jan 09, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1482; doi: 10.1115/1.4041544 History: Received July 01, 2018; Revised September 09, 2018

Wind energy has had a major impact on the generation of renewable energy. While most research and development focuses on large, utility-scale wind turbines, a new application is in the field of small wind turbines for the urban environment. A major design challenge for urban wind turbines is the noise generated during operation. This study examines the power production and the noise generated by two small-scale wind turbines tested in a small wind tunnel. Both rotors were designed using the blade-element momentum theory using either the NREL S823 or the Eppler 216 airfoils. Point noise measurements were taken using a microphone at three locations downstream of the turbine: 16% of the diameter (two chord lengths), 50% of the diameter, and 75% of the diameter. At each location downstream of the turbine, a vertical traverse was performed to analyze the sound pressure level (SPL) from the tip of the turbine blades down to the hub. The rotor designed with the Eppler 216 airfoil showed a 9% increase in power production and decrease of up to 7 dB(A).

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Figures

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Fig. 1

2015 sources of power generation [3]

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Fig. 2

NREL wind resources map [13]

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Fig. 3

Urban wind turbine designs [29]1

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Fig. 4

Types of aeroacoustic noise [31]

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Fig. 5

Lift to drag curves compared4

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Fig. 6

Dovetail attachments

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Fig. 7

Propeller blade tip treatments [43]

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Fig. 8

Baylor subsonic wind tunnel

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Fig. 9

Load cell (A), torque cell (B), and optical tachomoter (C)

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Fig. 10

Brüel & Kjaer microphone

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Fig. 11

Thrust (left) and torque (right) calibration

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Fig. 12

NREL S823 (top) and EPPLER 216 (bottom)5

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Fig. 13

Lift to drag versus angle of attack at Re = 150,000 [47]

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Fig. 14

Wind tunnel test section

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Fig. 15

S823 coefficient of power versus resistance at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph)

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Fig. 16

S823 coefficient of power versus TSR at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph)

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Fig. 17

S823 vertical location versus SPL at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph)

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Fig. 18

Eppler 216 coefficient of power versus TSR at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph)

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Fig. 19

Airfoil comparison: coefficient of power versus TSR at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph)

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Fig. 20

Eppler 216 vertical location versus SPL at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph)

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Fig. 21

Airfoil comparison: vertical location versus SPL at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph) and 16% diameter downstream

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Fig. 22

Airfoil comparison: vertical location versus SPL at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph) and 50% diameter downstream

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Fig. 23

Airfoil comparison: vertical location versus SPL at 5.588 m/s (12.5 mph) and 75% diameter downstream

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