Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Thermo-Ecological Cost of Electricity Generated in Wind Turbine Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Tomasz Simla

Institute of Thermal Technology,
Silesian University of Technology,
Konarskiego 22,
Gliwice 44-100, Poland
e-mail: tomasz.simla@polsl.pl

Wojciech Stanek

Institute of Thermal Technology,
Silesian University of Technology,
Konarskiego 22,
Gliwice 44-100, Poland
e-mail: wojciech.stanek@polsl.pl

Lucyna Czarnowska

Institute of Thermal Technology,
Silesian University of Technology,
Konarskiego 22,
Gliwice 44-100, Poland,
e-mail: lucyna.czarnowska@polsl.pl

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 5, 2018; final manuscript received September 24, 2018; published online October 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: David Macphee.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(3), 031201 (Oct 24, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1103; doi: 10.1115/1.4041612 History: Received February 05, 2018; Revised September 24, 2018

Wind power is one of the most popular renewable energy sources (RES), characterized by rapid growth of installed power in the energy mix of many countries. Usually, the influence of wind technologies on the depletion of nonrenewable resources is evaluated taking into account the consumption of energy and materials in the construction phase. However, it should be noted that the major drawback of wind energy is its random availability which also influences the consumption of resources. This consumption results from the necessity of compensation for random operation of wind power plants by conventional ones operating in off-design point. In the present work, thermo-ecological cost (TEC) is proposed for the evaluation of the performance of wind generation systems operating with random accessibility of wind energy. The presented analysis focuses on the estimation of additional non-renewable energy consumption due to the part-load operation of the conventional power units. Different strategies are assumed for the compensation for the hourly wind power variations. The presented results of TEC analysis show that the part of TEC resulting from induced losses can be significant. The authors prove that, within the assessment of wind turbines, the induced losses cannot be omitted.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


The European Parliament and The Council of The European Union, 2017, “ Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament,” The European Parliament and The Council of The European Union, Brussels, Belgium, accessed Feb. 14, 2017, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?q=1487081346577&uri=CELEX:32009L0028
European Commission, 2017, “ Renewable Energy Progress Report,” European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, accessed Feb. 14, 2017, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52015DC0293
Amano, R. S. , 2017, “ Review of Wind Turbine Research in 21st Century,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(5), p. 050801.
Gupta, A. K. , 2015, “ Efficient Wind Energy Conversion: Evolution to Modern Design,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(5), p. 051201.
Tabassum-Abbasi , Premalatha, M. , Abbasi, T. , and Abbasi, S. A. , 2014, “ Wind Energy: Increasing Deployment, Rising Environmental Concerns,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 31, pp. 270–288. [CrossRef]
Saidur, R. , Rahim, N. A. , Islam, M. R. , and Solangi, K. H. , 2011, “ Environmental Impact of Wind Energy,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(5), pp. 2423–2430. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , Solgaard, H. S. , and Haider, W. , 2016, “ Wind, Hydro or Mixed Renewable Energy Source: Preference for Electricity Products When the Share of Renewable Energy Increases,” Energy Policy, 97, pp. 521–531. [CrossRef]
Dai, K. , Bergot, A. , Liang, C. , Xiang, W. , and Huang, Z. , 2015, “ Environmental Issues Associated With Wind Energy—A Review,” Renewable Energy, 75, pp. 911–921. [CrossRef]
Leung, D. Y. C. , and Yang, Y. , 2012, “ Wind Energy Development and Its Environmental Impact: A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(1), pp. 1031–1039. [CrossRef]
Kasaei, M. J. , Gandomkar, M. , and Nikoukar, J. , 2017, “ Optimal Operational Scheduling of Renewable Energy Sources Using Teaching–Learning Based Optimization Algorithm by Virtual Power Plant,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(6), p. 062003.
Troy, N. , Denny, E. , and O'Malley, M. , 2010, “ Base-Load Cycling on a System With Significant Wind Penetration,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 25(2), pp. 1088–1097. [CrossRef]
Gutiérrez-Martín, F. , Da Silva-Álvarez, R. A. , and Montoro-Pintado, P. , 2013, “ Effects of Wind Intermittency on Reduction of CO2 Emissions: The Case of the Spanish Power System,” Energy, 61, pp. 108–117. [CrossRef]
Turconi, R. , O'Dwyer, C. , Flynn, D. , and Astrup, T. , 2014, “ Emissions From Cycling of Thermal Power Plants in Electricity Systems With High Penetration of Wind Power: Life Cycle Assessment for Ireland,” Appl. Energy, 131, pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Oates, D. L. , and Jaramillo, P. , 2013, “ Production Cost and Air Emissions Impacts of Coal Cycling in Power Systems With Large-Scale Wind Penetration,” Environ. Res. Lett., 8, p. 024022.
Inhaber, H. , 2011, “ Why Wind Power Does Not Deliver the Expected Emissions Reductions,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(6), pp. 2557–2562. [CrossRef]
Wagman, D. , 2013, “ Rethinking Wind's Impact on Emissions and Cycling Costs,” Power Mag., 157(3), pp. 62–66.
Berent-Kowalska, G. , Kacprowska, J. , Moskal, I. , and Jurgaś, A. , 2016, “ Energy From Renewable Sources in 2015,” Report of Polish Central Statistical Office, Poland.
Urząd Regulacji Energetyki [Polish Energy Regulatory Office], 2018, “Potencjał krajowy OZE w liczbach [Domestic potential of RES in figures],” Energy Regulatory Office, Warsaw, Poland, accessed Nov. 10, 2018, https://www.ure.gov.pl/pl/rynki-energii/energia-elektryczna/odnawialne-zrodla-ener/potencjal-krajowy-oze/5753,Moc-zainstalowana-MW.html
Polskie Sieci Energetyczne [Polish Transmission System Operator], 2018, “Dane systemowe [Data on the power system],” Polish Transmission System Operator, Warszawska, Poland, accessed Nov. 10, 2018, https://www.pse.pl/dane-systemowe
Kancelaria Sejmu Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej [The Office of Sejm of the Republic of Poland], 2018, “Ustawa z dnia 10 kwietnia 1997 r. - Prawo energetyczne [The Act of 10 April 1997 - Energy Law],” Dziennik Ustaw Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej [Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland], 54, p. 348.
Szargut, J. , 2005, Exergy Method: Technical and Ecological Applications, WIT Press, Southampton-Boston, MA.
Szargut, J. , Zie˛bik, A. , and Stanek, W. , 2002, “ Depletion of the Non-Renewable Natural Exergy Resources as a Measure of the Ecological Cost,” Energy Convers. Manage., 43(9–12), pp. 1149–1163. [CrossRef]
Stanek, W. , 2012, “ Examples of Application of Exergy Analysis for the Evaluation of Ecological Effects in Thermal Processes,” Int. J. Thermodyn., 15, pp. 11–16.
Czarnowska, L. , 2014, “ Thermo-Ecological Cost of Products With Emphasis on External Environmental Costs,” Ph.D. dissertation, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.
Stanek, W. , 2009, Method of Evaluation of Ecological Effects in Thermal Processes With the Application of Exergy Analysis, Silesian University of Technology Press, Gliwice, Poland.
Szargut, J. , and Stanek, W. , 2007, “ Thermo-Ecological Optimization of a Solar Collector,” Energy, 32(4), pp. 584–90. [CrossRef]
Stanek, W. , Czarnowska, L. , and Gazda, W. , “ Thermo-Ecological Cost of Electricity From Renewable Energy Sources,” Fourth International Conference on Contemporary Problems of Thermal Engineering, Katowice, Poland, Sept. 14–16, pp. 1105–1120.
Dudek, G. , 2002, “ Ekonomiczny Rozdział Obciążeń z Zastosowaniem Algorytmów Ewolucyjnych,” Ph.D. dissertation, Cze˛stochowa University of Technology, Cze˛stochowa, Poland.
Koytsoumpa, E.-I. , Bergins, C. , Buddenberg, T. , Wu, S. , Sigurbjörnsson, Ó. , Tran, K. C. , and Kakaras, E. , 2016, “ The Challenge of Energy Storage in Europe: Focus on Power to Fuel,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(4), p. 042002.
Upendra Roy, B. P. , and Rengarajan, N. , 2016, “ Feasibility Study of an Energy Storage System for Distributed Generation System in Islanding Mode,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(1), p. 011901.
Stanek, W. , Szargut, J. , and Czarnowska, L. , 2016, “ Pro-Ecological Exergy Tax of Electricity,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(6), p. 061604.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Load factor of selected thermal power plants as a function of wind coverage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Polish electric energy mix in 2015 (based on Ref. [19])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Power distribution curves of selected thermal units in November 2016 (based on Ref. [19])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Net energy efficiency of a 260 MW power plant as a function of relative load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wind power distribution curve in 2015 (based on Ref. [19])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Thermo-ecological cost of electricity generated by various wind power plants (based on Ref. [27])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Cumulative distribution of number of coal-fired power units required to counterbalance wind generation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Values of TECcomp in respect to TECLCA

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Number of counterbalancing thermal power plants as a function of their minimal load factor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Value of TECcomp as a function of the minimal load factor of counterbalancing power plants

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Number of start-up procedures of thermal power plants as a function of wind penetration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Value of TECcomp as a function of wind penetration (third scenario)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In