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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effects of Air Flowrate on the Combustion and Emissions of Blended Corn Straw and Pinewood Wastes

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoxiao Meng

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China;
Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
Northeastern University,
360 Huntington Avenue, 334 SN,
Boston, MA 02116
e-mail: mengxiaoxiaodream@gmail.com

Wei Zhou

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: zhouweidream@gmail.com

Emad Rokni

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
Northeastern University,
360 Huntington Avenue, 334 SN,
Boston, MA 02116
e-mail: rokni.e@husky.neu.edu

Honghua Zhao

Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
Harbin 150049, China
e-mail: 11729425@qq.com

Rui Sun

Professor
School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: sunsr@hit.edu.cn

Yiannis A. Levendis

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
College of Engineering,
Northeastern University,
360 Huntington Avenue, 334 SN,
Boston, MA 02116
e-mail: y.levendis@neu.edu

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 9, 2018; final manuscript received November 7, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Samer F. Ahmed.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(4), 042205 (Dec 24, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1775; doi: 10.1115/1.4042005 History: Received October 09, 2018; Revised November 07, 2018

This research investigated the effects of the specific primary (under-fire) air flowrate (m˙air) on the combustion behavior of a 50–50 wt % blend of raw corn straw (CS) and raw pinewood wastes in a fixed-bed reactor. This parameter was varied in the range of 0.079–0.226 kg m−2 s−1, which changed the overall combustion stoichiometry from air-lean (excess air coefficient λ = 0.73) to air-rich (excess air coefficient λ = 1.25) and affected the combustion efficiency and stability as well as the emissions of hazardous pollutants. It was observed that by increasing m˙air, the ignition delay time first increased and then decreased, the average bed temperatures increased, both the average flame propagation rates and the fuel burning rates increased, and the combustion efficiencies also increased. The emissions of CO as well as those of cumulative gas phase nitrogen compounds increased, the latter mostly because of increasing HCN, while those of NO were rather constant. The emissions of HCl decreased but those of other chlorine-containing species increased. The effect of m˙air on the conversion of sulfur to SO2 was minor. By considering all of the aforesaid factors, a mildly overall air-rich (fuel-lean) (λ = 1.04) operating condition can be suggested for corn-straw/pinewood burning fixed-bed grate-fired reactors.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The diagram of the experimental reactor where fixed beds of biomass pellets are burned

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperature-time histories of bed layers at different heights along the centerline of the bed (T2 was located at the top of the bed and T8 at the bottom of the bed). The specific air flowrate through the bed was varied from 0.079 to 0226 kg/m2 s−1. The bed drying times are marked with the first asterisk *, and the bed ignition times are marked with the second asterisk *.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Local flame propagation rate along the fixed bed of CS and PW as a function of bed height and primary air flowrate (m˙air), and (b) flame propagation rate, averaged over all monitoring heights in the bed, as a function of m˙air

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of m˙air on the specific burning rates (kg m−2 s−1) of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed. The overall burning rate as well as those during the volatile and the char combustion stages is shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Top row: time-resolved evolution of major carbon-bearing species from combustion of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed at different primary air flowrates, m˙air; CO2 and CO. Bottom row: CH4 and C2H6. The oxygen mole fraction in the effluent gases is also shown in the top row.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The conversion ratio of C to CO2, CO, CH4, and C2H6 and unburned carbon in the residue at different m˙air

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Time-resolved evolution of HCN and NO from combustion of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed at different m˙air

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Fuel-N conversion to HCN, NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, and NH3 from combustion of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed at different m˙air

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) Time-resolved evolution of SO2 from combustion of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed at different m˙air, (b) integrated mass emissions of SO2, and (c) fuel-S conversion to SO2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Release ratio of K, Ca, Na, and Mg; (b) release ratio of Cl as HCl, other chlorides, and total Cl from combustion of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed at different m˙air; (c) time-resolved evolution of HCl from combustion of CS and PW blend in a fixed bed at different m˙air; and (d) the specific molar emissions of K, Ca, Na, Mg, and unidentified Cl-containing species (unknown)

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