Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Micro Combined Heat and Power System Transient Operation in a Residential User Microgrid

[+] Author and Article Information
Francesco Ippolito

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Via Giuseppe Saragat, 1,
Ferrara 44121, Italy

Mauro Venturini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44121, Italy
Via Giuseppe Saragat, 1,
e-mail: mauro.venturini@unife.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 14, 2018; final manuscript received November 27, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Esmail M. A. Mokheimer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(4), 042006 (Dec 24, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1044; doi: 10.1115/1.4042231 History: Received January 14, 2018; Revised November 27, 2018

This paper presents an analysis of the transient operation of a micro combined heat and power (CHP) system, equipped with both thermal and electric storage units and connected with both electric and district heating grids. Analysis is carried out by means of a simulation model developed by the authors for reproducing the transient behavior of micro-CHP systems operating within a microgrid. The prime mover considered in this paper is an internal combustion reciprocating engine. A residential user, characterized by electric and thermal energy demand during one representative summer day, is analyzed by using literature data. The transient response of each component is evaluated separately to quantify the relative deviation (RD) between the user-demand and micro-CHP system transient response. Therefore, this paper provides a measure of the RD over 1 day in terms of the energy required by the user versus the energy provided to the user itself.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Macchi, E. , Campanari, S. , and Silva, P. , 2006, La Microcogenerazione a Gas Naturale, Polipress, Milan, Italy.
Chicco, G. , and Mancarella, P. , 2009, “ Distributed Multi-Generation: A Comprehensive View,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 13(3), pp. 535–531. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2010, “ Integrazione di Sistemi Cogenerativi Innovativi di Piccolissima Taglia Nelle Reti di Distribuzione Dell'energia Elettrica, termica e Frigorifera,” ENEA, Rome, Italy, Report Ricerca di Sistema Elettrico 220 (in Italian).
Barbieri, E. S. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2012, “ Analysis of Innovative Micro-CHP Systems to Meet Household Energy Demands,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 723–733. [CrossRef]
Maghanki, M. M. , Ghobadian, B. , Najafi, G. , and Galogah, R. J. , 2013, “ Micro Combined Heat and Power (MCHP) Technologies and Application,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 28, pp. 510–524. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , De Pascale, A. , and Spina, P. R. , 2012, “ Guidelines for Residential Micro-CHP Systems Design,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 673–685. [CrossRef]
Campos Celador, A. , Odriozola, M. , and Sala, J. M. , 2011, “ Implications of the Modelling of Stratified Hot Water Storage Tanks in the Simulation of CHP Plants,” Energy Convers. Manage., 52(8–9), pp. 3018–3026. [CrossRef]
Chesi, A. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Magnani, S. , and Tarani, F. , 2013, “ Influence of the Heat Storage Size on the Plant Performances in a Smart User Case Study,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 1454–1465. [CrossRef]
Blarke, M. B. , and Lund, H. , 2008, “ The Effectiveness of Storage and Relocation Options in Renewable Energy Systems,” Renewable Energy, 33(7), pp. 1499–1507. [CrossRef]
Prando, D. , Patuzzi, F. , Pernigotto, G. , Gasparella, A. , and Baratieri, M. , 2014, “ Biomass Gasification System for Residential Application: An Integrated Simulation Approach,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(1), pp. 152–160. [CrossRef]
Cau, G. , Cocco, D. , and Petrollese, M. , 2014, “ Modeling and Simulation of an Isolated Hybrid Micro-Grid With Hydrogen Production and Storage,” Energy Procedia, 45, pp. 12–21. [CrossRef]
Szega, M. , and Żymełka, P. , 2017, “ Thermodynamic and Economic Analysis of the Production of Electricity, Heat, and Cold in the Combined Heat and Power Unit With the Absorption Chillers,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 052002. [CrossRef]
Dorer, V. , and Weber, A. , 2009, “ Energy and CO2 Emissions Performance Assessment of Residential Micro-Cogeneration Systems With Dynamic Whole-Building Simulation Programs,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(3), pp. 648–657. [CrossRef]
Brandoni, C. , Arteconi, A. , Ciriachi, G. , and Polonara, F. , 2014, “ Assessing the Impact of Micro-Generation Technologies on Local Sustainability,” Energy Convers. Manage., 87, pp. 1281–1290. [CrossRef]
Comodi, G. , Cioccolanti, L. , and Renzi, M. , 2014, “ Modelling the Italian Household Sector at the Municipal Scale: Micro-CHP, Renewables and Energy Efficiency,” Energy, 68, pp. 92–103. [CrossRef]
Yun, K. , Luck, R. , Mago, P. J. , and Smith, A. , 2011, “ Analytic Solutions for Optimal Power Generation Unit Operation in Combined Heating and Power Systems,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(1), p. 011301. [CrossRef]
Angrisani, G. , Canelli, M. , Roselli, C. , and Sasso, M. , 2015, “ Microcogeneration in Building With Low Energy Demand in Load Sharing Application,” Energy Convers. Manage., 100, pp. 78–89. [CrossRef]
Park, C. , Kim, C. , Lee, S. , Lim, G. , Lee, S. , and Choi, Y. , 2015, “ Effect on Control Strategy on Performance and Emissions of Natural Gas Engine for Cogeneration System,” Energy, 82, pp. 353–360. [CrossRef]
Mongibello, L. , Bianco, N. , Caliano, M. , and Graditi, G. , 2015, “ Influence of Heat Dumping on the Operation of Residential Micro-CHP Systems,” Appl. Energy, 160, pp. 206–220. [CrossRef]
Thomas, B. , 2014, “ Experimental Determination of Efficiency Factors for Different Micro-CHP Units According to the Standard DIN 4709,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 721–728. [CrossRef]
Alahäivälä, A. , Heß, T. , Cao, S. , and Lehtonen, M. , 2015, “ Analyzing the Optimal Coordination of a Residential Micro-CHP System With a Power Sink,” Appl. Energy, 149, pp. 326–337. [CrossRef]
Benato, A. , and Stoppato, A. , 2017, “ Energy and Cost Analysis of a New Packed Bed Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage Unit,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(2), p. 020904. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , De Pascale, A. , Melino, F. , and Peretto, A. , 2014, “ Performance Prediction of Micro-CHP Systems Using Simple Virtual Operating Cycles,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 771–779. [CrossRef]
Gu, W. , Wu, Z. , Bo, R. , Liu, W. , Zhou, G. , Chen, W. , and Wu, Z. , 2014, “ Modelling, Planning and Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Microgrid: A Review,” Electr. Power Energy Syst., 54, pp. 26–37. [CrossRef]
Darkovich, K. , Kenney, B. , MacNeil, D. D. , and Armstrong, M. M. , 2015, “ Control Strategy and Cycling Demands for Li-Ion Storage Batteries in Residential Micro-Cogeneration Systems,” Appl. Energy, 141, pp. 32–41. [CrossRef]
Fares, R. L. , and Webber, M. E. , 2015, “ Combining a Dynamic Battery Model With High-Resolution Smart Grid Data to Assess Microgrid Islanding Lifetime,” Appl. Energy, 137, pp. 482–489. [CrossRef]
Mollenhauer, E. , Christidis, A. , and Tsatsaronis, G. , 2017, “ Increasing the Flexibility of Combined Heat and Power Plants With Heat Pumps and Thermal Energy Storage,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(2), p. 020907. [CrossRef]
Spitalny, L. , Myrzik, J. M. A. , and Mehlhorn, T. , 2014, “ Estimation of the Economic Addressable Market of Micro-CHP and Heat Pumps Based on the Status of the Residential Building Sector in Germany,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 838–846. [CrossRef]
Torchio, M. F. , 2015, “ Comparison of District Heating CHP and Distributed Generation CHP With Energy, Environmental, and Economic Criteria for Northern Italy,” Energy Convers. Manage., 92, pp. 114–128. [CrossRef]
Adam, A. , Fraga, E. S. , and Brett, D. J. L. , 2015, “ Options for Residential Building Services Design Using Fuel Cell Based Micro-CHP and the Potential for Heat Integration,” Appl. Energy, 138, pp. 685–694. [CrossRef]
Pizzolato, A. , Sciacovelli, A. , and Verda, V. , 2017, “ Topology Optimization of Robust District Heating Networks,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(2), p. 020905. [CrossRef]
Menon, R. P. , Marechal, F. , and Paolone, M. , 2016, “ Intra-Day Electro-Thermal Model Predictive Control for Polygeneration Systems in Microgrids,” Energy, 104, pp. 308–319. [CrossRef]
Shaneb, O. A. , Taylor, P. C. , and Coates, G. , 2012, “ Optimal Online Operation of Residential μCHP Systems Using Linear Programming,” Energy Build., 44, pp. 17–25. [CrossRef]
Cho, H. , Luck, R. , and Chamra, L. M. , 2010, “ Supervisory Feed-Forward Control for Real-Time Topping Cycle CHP Operation,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(1), p. 012401. [CrossRef]
Su, W. , and Wang, J. , 2012, “ Energy Management Systems in Microgrid Operations,” Electr. J., 25(8), pp. 45–60.
Mahmoud, M. S. , Azher Hussain, S. , and Abido, M. A. , 2014, “ Modeling and Control of Microgrid: An Overview,” J. Franklin Inst., 351(5), pp. 2822–2859. [CrossRef]
Gupta, R. A. , and Gupta, N. K. , 2015, “ A Robust Optimization Based Approach for Microgrid Operation in Deregulated Environment,” Energy Convers. Manage., 93, pp. 121–131. [CrossRef]
Zidan, A. , Gabbar, H. A. , and Eldessouky, A. , 2015, “ Optimal Planning of Combined Heat and Power Systems Within Microgrids,” Energy, 93, pp. 235–244. [CrossRef]
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2013, “ Optimal Allocation of Thermal, Electric and Cooling Loads Among Generation Technologies in Household Applications,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 205–214. [CrossRef]
Hafez, O. , and Bhattacharya, K. , 2012, “ Optimal Planning and Design of a Renewable Energy Based Supply System for Microgrids,” Renewable Energy, 45, pp. 7–15. [CrossRef]
Radosavljević, J. , Jevtić, M. , and Klimenta, D. , 2016, “ Energy and Operation Management of a Microgrid Using Particle Swarm Optimization,” Eng. Optim., 48(5), pp. 811–830. [CrossRef]
Barberis, S. , Rivarolo, M. , Traverso, A. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2016, “ Thermo-Economic Analysis of the Energy Storage Role in a Real Polygenerative District,” J. Energy Storage, 5, pp. 187–202. [CrossRef]
Ribarov, L. A. , and Liscinsky, D. S. , 2006, “ Microgrid Viability for Small-Scale Cooling, Heating, and Power,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 129(1), pp. 71–78. [CrossRef]
Boutin, V. , Ignatova, V. , Philippe, J. , Heliot, R. , Herriot, Y. , Haun, A. , and Wagner, V. , 2017, “ How New Microgrid Technologies Enable Optimal Cooperation Among Distributed Energy Resources,” Schneider Electric, Report http://www2.greentechmedia.com/l/264512/2018-09-27/6p9d6?gtm_source.
Ippolito, F. , and Venturini, M. , 2018, “ Development of a Simulation Model of Transient Operation of Micro-CHP Systems in a Microgrid,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 140(3), p. 032001. [CrossRef]
Zachar, M. , and Daoutidis, P. , 2015, “ Understanding and Predicting the Impact of Location and Load on Microgrid Design,” Energy, 90, pp. 1005–1023. [CrossRef]
Rehan, A. , Habib, M. A. , Elshafei, M. , and Alzaharnah, I. T. , 2017, “ Modeling Time Variations of Boiler Efficiency,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 052001. [CrossRef]
Portoraro, A. , Ruscica, G. , and Badami, M. , 2010, “ Micro-Cogenerazione Nel Settore Residenziale Con L'utilizzo di Motori a Combustione Interna: Sviluppo di un Modello Matematico per la Simulazione Oraria e Analisi di un Caso Reale,” ENEA, Rome, Italy, Report Ricerca di Sistema Elettrico 227 (in Italian).
Cullen, B. , and McGovern, J. , 2009, “ The Quest for More Efficient Industrial Engines: A Review of Current Industrial Engine Development and Applications,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(2), p. 021601. [CrossRef]
Kalantzis, N. , Pezouvanis, A. , and Ebrahimi, K. M. , 2017, “ Internal Combustion Engine Model for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems Design,” Energies, 10(12), p. 1948. [CrossRef]
Onovwiona, H. I. , Ismet Ugursal, V. , and Fung, A. S. , 2007, “ Modeling of Internal Combustion Engine Based Cogeneration Systems for Residential Applications,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(5–6), pp. 848–861. [CrossRef]
Radu, R. , Micheli, D. , Alessandrini, S. , Casula, I. , and Radu, B. , 2015, “ Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Integrated System: Variable Speed Operated Internal Combustion Engine Combined Heat and Power Unit–Photovoltaic Array,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(3), p. 032001. [CrossRef]
Ziviani, D. , Beyene, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2014, “ Design, Analysis and Optimization of a Micro-CHP ORC System for Ultra-Low Grade Thermal Energy Recovery,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 011602. [CrossRef]
Malavolta, M. , Beyene, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2010, “ Experimental Implementation of a Micro-Scale ORC-Based CHP Energy System for Domestic Applications,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2010-37208.
Ziviani, D. , Beyene, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2014, “ Advances and Challenges in ORC Systems Modeling for Low Grade Thermal Energy Recovery,” Appl. Energy, 121, pp. 79–95. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Architecture of the complete simulation model [45]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Control logic in thermal load following mode [45]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Residential user power demand in summer [1,45]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Influence of PM delay time (scenario #1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Influence of DHG delay time (scenario #1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Combined influence of PM and DHG delay time (scenario #1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Influence of TES delay time (scenario #2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Influence of DHG delay time (scenario #2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Combined influence of TES and DHG delay time (scenario #2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Influence of EG delay time (scenario #3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Influence of EES delay time (scenario #4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Relative deviation of thermal energy versus delay time magnitude (scenario #1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Relative deviation of thermal energy versus delay time magnitude (scenario #2)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In