0
Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Evaluating the Impact of Free-Stream Turbulence on Convective Cooling of Overhead Conductors Using Large Eddy Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Abdelhady

Laboratory for Turbulence Research in
Aerodynamics and Flow Control (LTRAC),
Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Calgary,
Calgary, AB T2 L 1Y6, Canada
e-mail: Mohamed.Abdelhady@ucalgary.ca

David H. Wood

Professor,
Schulich Chair in Renewable Energy,
Laboratory for Turbulence Research in
Aerodynamics and Flow Control (LTRAC),
Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Calgary,
Calgary, AB T2 L 1Y6, Canada
e-mail: dhwood@ucalgary.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 23, 2018; final manuscript received November 16, 2018; published online January 30, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Reza Baghaei Lakeh.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(6), 062010 (Jan 30, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1651; doi: 10.1115/1.4042401 History: Received August 23, 2018; Revised November 16, 2018

The international trend of using renewable energy sources for generating electricity is increasing, partly through harvesting energy from wind turbines. Increasing electric power transmission efficiency is achievable through using real-time weather data for power line rating, known as real-time thermal rating (RTTR), instead of using the worst case scenario weather data, known as static rating. RTTR is particularly important for wind turbine connections to the grid, as wind power output and overhead conductor rating both increase with increasing wind speed, which should significantly increase real-time rated conductor from that of statically rated. Part of the real-time weather data is the effect of free-stream turbulence, which is not considered by the commonly used overhead conductor codes, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 738 and International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRÉ) 207. This study aims to assess the effect free-stream turbulence on IEEE 738 and CIGRÉ 207 forced cooling term. The study uses large eddy simulation (LES) in the ANSYS fluent software. The analysis is done for low wind speed, corresponding to Reynolds number of 3000. The primary goal is to calculate Nusselt number for cylindrical conductors with free-stream turbulence. Calculations showed an increase in convective heat transfer from the low turbulence value by ∼30% at turbulence intensity of 21% and length scale to diameter ratio of 0.4; an increase of ∼19% at turbulence intensity of 8% and length scale to diameter ratio of 0.4; and an increase of ∼15% at turbulence intensity of 6% and length scale to diameter ratio of 0.6.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Simla, T. , Stanek, W. , and Czarnowska, L. , 2018, “ Thermo-Ecological Cost of Electricity Generated in Wind Turbine Systems,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 141(3), p. 031201. [CrossRef]
Alom, N. , and Saha, U. K. , 2018, “ Four Decades of Research Into the Augmentation Techniques of Savonius Wind Turbine Rotor,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 050801. [CrossRef]
Mishra, N. , Gupta, A. S. , Kumar, J. D. A. , and Mitra, S. , 2018, “ Numerical and Experimental Study on Performance Enhancement of Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine With Wingtip Devices,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(12), p. 121201. [CrossRef]
Yazici, I. , and Yaylaci, E. , 2017, “ Improving Efficiency of the Tip Speed Ratio-MPPT Method for Wind Energy Systems by Using an Integral Sliding Mode Voltage Regulator,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 051203. [CrossRef]
Fawzy, D. , Moussa, S. , and Badr, N. , 2017, “ Trio-V Wind Analyzer: A Generic Integral System for Wind Farm Suitability Design and Power Prediction Using Big Data Analytics,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(5), p. 051202. [CrossRef]
Houssainy, S. , Janbozorgi, M. , and Kavehpour, P. , 2018, “ Theoretical Performance Limits of an Isobaric Hybrid Compressed Air Energy Storage System,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 140(10), p. 101201. [CrossRef]
Greenwood, D. M. , 2014, “ Quantifying the Benefits and Risks of Real-Time Thermal Ratings in Electrical Networks,” Doctoral dissertation, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
McLaughlin, A. , Alshamali, M. , Colandairaj, J. , and Connor, S. , 2011, “ Application of Dynamic Line Rating to Defer Transmission Network Reinforcement Due to Wind Generation,” 46th International Universities' Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Soest, Germany, Sept. 5–8.
IEEE, 2013, “ IEEE Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors,” IEEE, New York, IEEE Standard No. 738-2012, pp. 1–72.
CIGRÉ 207, Working Group 22.12, 2002, “ Thermal Behaviour of Overhead Conductors,” International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRÉ), Paris, France.
Sam, A. A. , Szasz, R. , and Revstedt, J. , 2017, “ An Investigation of Wind Farm Power Production for Various Atmospheric Boundary Layer Heights,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(5), p. 051216. [CrossRef]
Comings, E. W. , Clapp, J. T. , and Taylor, J. F. , 1948, “ Air Turbulence and Transfer Processes,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 40(6), pp. 1076–1082. [CrossRef]
Maisel, D. S. , and Sherwood, T. K. , 1950, “ Effect of Air Turbulence on Rate of Evaporation of Water,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 46(4), pp. 172–175.
Endoh, K. , Tsuruga, H. , Hirano, H. , and Morihira, M. , 1972, “ Effect of Turbulence on Heat and Mass Transfer,” Heat Transfer Jpn. Res., 1(1), pp. 113–115.
Petrie, A. , and Simpson, H. , 1972, “ An Experimental Study of the Sensitivity to Freestream Turbulence of Heat Transfer in Wakes of Cylinders in Crossflow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 15(8), pp. 1497–1513. [CrossRef]
Kondjoyan, A. , and Daudin, J. , 1995, “ Effects of Free Stream Turbulence Intensity on Heat and Mass Transfers at the Surface of a Circular Cylinder and an Elliptical Cylinder, Axis Ratio 4,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(10), pp. 1735–1749. [CrossRef]
Sak, C. , 2002, “ The Effect of Turbulence on Forced Convection From a Heated Horizontal Circular Cylinder,” M.A.Sc. dissertation, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
Van Der Hegge Zijnen, B. G. , 1958, “ Heat Transfer From Horizontal Cylinders to a Turbulent Air Flow,” Appl. Sci. Res., Sect. A, 7(2–3), pp. 205–223. [CrossRef]
Žukauskas, A. , and Žiugžda, J. , 1985, Heat Transfer of Cylinders in Crossflow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC.
Yardi, N. R. , and Sukhatme, S. P. , 1978, “ Effects of Turbulence Intensity and Integral Length Scale of a Turbulent Free Stream on Forced Convection Heat Transfer,” International Heat Transfer Conference, Toronto, ON, Canada, Aug. 7–11, pp. 347–352.
Kestin, J. , and Wood, R. T. , 1971, “ The Influence of Turbulence on Mass Transfer From Cylinders,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 93(4), pp. 321–326. [CrossRef]
Smith, M. C. , and Kuethe, A. M. , 1966, “ Effects of Turbulence on Laminar Skin Friction and Heat Transfer,” Phys. Fluids, 9(12), pp. 2337–2344. [CrossRef]
Boulos, M. I. , and Pei, D. C. T. , 1973, “ Heat and Mass Transfer From Cylinders to a Turbulent Fluid Stream a Critical Review,” Can. J. Chem. Eng., 51(6), pp. 673–679. [CrossRef]
Midal Cables, 2010, “ ACSR Conductor Data Sheet,” Midal Cables, Ltd., Kingdom of Bahrain, accessed July 19, 2017, https://www.midalcable.com/overhead-line-conductors/acsr-aluminium-conductor-steel-reinforced
Morgan, V. T. , 1975, “ The Overall Convective Heat Transfer From Smooth Circular Cylinders,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 199–264. [CrossRef]
Launder, B. E. , and Sandham, N. D. , eds., 2002, Closure Strategies for Turbulent and Transitional Flows, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Piomelli, U. , 2001, “ Large-Eddy and Direct Simulation of Turbulent Flows,” Ninth CFD Society of Canada Conference, Waterloo, ON, Canada, May 27–29. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.24.3796
Pletcher, R. H. , Tannehill, J. C. , and Anderson, D. A. , 2013, Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Tucker, P. G. , 2014, Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics in Aeronautics, Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Shao, J. , and Zhang, C. , 2006, “ Numerical Analysis of the Flow Around a Circular Cylinder Using RANS and LES,” Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 20(5), pp. 301–307. [CrossRef]
Piomelli, U. , 2014, “ Large Eddy Simulations in 2030 and Beyond,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 372(2022), p. 20130320.
Zhiyin, Y. , 2015, “ Large-Eddy Simulation: Past, Present and the Future,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 28(1), pp. 11–24. [CrossRef]
Germano, M. , Piomelli, U. , Moin, P. , and Cabot, W. H. , 1991, “ A Dynamic Subgrid Scale Eddy Viscosity Model,” Phys. Fluids A: Fluid Dyn., 3(7), pp. 1760–1765. [CrossRef]
Žukauskas, A. , and Šlančiauskas, A. , 1987, Heat Transfer in Turbulent Fluid Flows, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC.
Abdelhady, M. , 2017, “ Assessing the Accuracy of Convective Heat Transfer From Overhead Conductor at Low Wind Speed Using Large Eddy Simulations (LES),” M.Sc. dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Lu, L. , Doering, C. R. , and Busse, F. H. , 2004, “ Bounds on Convection Driven by Internal Heating,” J. Math. Phys., 45(7), pp. 2967–2986. [CrossRef]
Leonard, A. , 1975, “ Energy Cascade in Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Fluid Flows,” Adv. Geophys., 18, pp. 237–248. [CrossRef]
De Villiers, E. , 2006, “ The Potential of Large Eddy Simulation for the Modeling of Wall Bounded Flows,” Doctoral dissertation, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London.
Gatski, T. B. , Hussaini, M. Y. , and Lumley, J. L. , ed., 1996, Simulation and Modeling of Turbulent Flows, Oxford University Press, New York.
Smagorinsky, J. , 1963, “ General Circulation Experiments With the Primitive Equations I. The Basic Experiment,” Mon. Weather Rev., 91(3), pp. 99–164.
Liaw, K. , 2005, “ Simulation of Flow Around Bluff Bodies and Bridge Deck Sections Using CFD,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Tabor, G. , and Baba-Ahmadi, M. , 2010, “ Inlet Conditions for Large Eddy Simulation: A Review,” Comput. Fluids, 39(4), pp. 553–567. [CrossRef]
Tabor, G. , Baba-Ahmadi, M. , De Villiers, E. , and Weller, H. , 2004, “ Construction of Inlet Conditions for LES of Turbulent Channel Flow,” European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2004), Jyväskylä, Finland, July 24–28. http://www.mit.jyu.fi/eccomas2004/proceedings/pdf/1116.pdf
Chung, Y. M. , and Sung, H. J. , 1997, “ Comparative Study of Inflow Conditions for Spatially Evolving Simulation,” AIAA J., 35(2), pp. 269–274. [CrossRef]
Baba-Ahmadi, M. , and Tabor, G. , 2009, “ Inlet Conditions for LES Using Mapping and Feedback Control,” Comput. Fluids, 38(6), pp. 1299–1311. [CrossRef]
Keating, A. , Piomelli, U. , Balaras, E. , and Kaltenbach, H.-J. , 2004, “ A Priori and a Posteriori Tests of Inflow Conditions for Large-Eddy Simulation,” Phys. Fluids, 16(12), pp. 4696–4712. [CrossRef]
Torrano, I. , Martinez-Agirre, M. , and Tutar, M. , 2016, “ LES Study of Grid-Generated Turbulent Inflow Conditions With Moderate Number of Mesh Cells at Low Re Numbers,” Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 30(2), pp. 141–154. [CrossRef]
Blackmore, T. , Batten, W. M. , and Bahaj, A. S. , 2013, “ Inlet Grid-Generated Turbulence for Large-Eddy Simulations,” Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 27(6–7), pp. 307–315. [CrossRef]
Hemmati, A. , 2015, “ Evolution of Large-Scale Structures in the Wake of Sharp-Edge Thin Flat Bodies,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Meyer, M. , Hickel, S. , and Adams, N. , 2010, “ Assessment of Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation With a Conservative Immersed Interface Method for Turbulent Cylinder Flow,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 31(3), pp. 368–377. [CrossRef]
Wissink, J. , and Rodi, W. , 2008, “ Numerical Study of the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(4), pp. 1060–1070. [CrossRef]
Kataoka, H. , and Mizuno, M. , 2002, “ Numerical Flow Computation Around Aeroelastic 3D Square Cylinder Using Inflow Turbulence,” Wind Struct., 5(2–4), pp. 379–392. [CrossRef]
Pereira, F. S. , Vaz, G. , and Eça, L. , 2015, “ Flow Past a Circular Cylinder: A Comparison Between RANS and Hybrid Turbulence Models for a Low Reynolds Number,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2015-41235.
Roach, P. , 1987, “ The Generation of Nearly Isotropic Turbulence by Means of Grids,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 8(2), pp. 82–92. [CrossRef]
Eça, L. , Vaz, G. , Rosetti, G. , and Pereira, F. , 2014, “ On the Numerical Prediction of the Flow Around Smooth Circular Cylinders,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2014-23230.
Ferziger, J. , and Perić, M. , 2002, Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, 3rd ed., Springer, Berlin.
Bergman, T. L. , Lavine, A. S. , Incropera, F. P. , and Dewitt, D. P. , 2011, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 6th ed., Wiley, New York.
ANSYS, 2015, “ANSYS Fluent User's Guide. Release 16.2,” ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Versteeg, H. K. , and Malalasekera, W. , 2007, An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method, 2nd ed., Pearson Education Limited, UK.
ANSYS, 2015, “ANSYS Fluent Theory Guide. Release 16.2,” ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Menter, F. R. , 2015, “Best Practice: Scale-Resolving Simulations in ANSYS CFD. Version 2.00,” ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Mathey, F. , Cokljat, D. , Bertoglio, J.-P. , and Sergent, E. , 2006, “ Specification of LES Inlet Boundary Condition Using Vortex Method,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 6(1/2/3), pp. 58–67. [CrossRef]
Mittal, R. , 1995, “ Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Past a Circular Cylinder,” Annual Research Briefs, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford, CA.
Bailly, C. , and Comte-Bellot, G. , 2015, Turbulence, Springer International Publishing, New York.
Van Der Hegge Zijnen, B. G. , 1958, “ Measurements of the Intensity, Integral Scale and Microscale of Turbulence Downstream of Three Grids in a Stream of Air,” Appl. Sci. Res., Sect. A, 7(2–3), pp. 149–174. [CrossRef]
O'Neill, P. L. , Nicolaides, D. , Honnery, D. , and Soria, J. , 2004, “ Autocorrelation Functions and the Determination of Integral Length With Reference to Experimental and Numerical Data,” 15th Australian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Sydney, Australia, Dec. 13–17. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253210572_Autocorrelation_Functions_and_the_Determination_of_Integral_Length_with_Reference_to_Experimental_and_Numerical_Data
Ko, S. C. , and Graf, W. H. , 1972, “ Drag Coefficient of Cylinders in Turbulent Flow,” J. Hydraul. Div., 98(5), pp. 897–912.
Galloway, T. R. , and Sage, B. H. , 1967, “ Local and Macroscopic Transport From a 1.5 in. Cylinder in a Turbulent Air Stream,” AIChE J., 13(3), pp. 563–570. [CrossRef]
Zdravkovich, M. , 1990, “ Conceptual Overview of Laminar and Turbulent Flows Past Smooth and Rough Circular Cylinders,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 33(1–2), pp. 53–62. [CrossRef]
Cantwell, B. , and Coles, D. , 1983, “ An Experimental Study of Entrainment and Transport in the Turbulent Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder,” J. Fluid Mech., 136(1), pp. 321–374. [CrossRef]
Kakaç, S. , Shah, R. K. , and Aung, W. , 1987, Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York.
Norberg, C. , 2003, “ Fluctuating Lift on a Circular Cylinder: Review and New Measurements,” J. Fluids Struct., 17(1), pp. 57–96. [CrossRef]
Norberg, C. , 1987, “ Effects of Reynolds Number and a Low-Intensity Freestream Turbulence on the Flow Around a Circular Cylinder,” Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, Report No. 87/2.
Norberg, C. , 1998, “ LDV-Measurements in the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder,” Advances in the Understanding of Bluff Body Wakes and Vortex-Induced Vibrations (BBVIV-1), ASME Paper No. FEDSM98-521.
Lysenko, D. A. , Ertesvåg, I. S. , and Rian, K. E. , 2012, “ Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flow Over a Circular Cylinder at Reynolds Number 3900 Using the OpenFOAM Toolbox,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 89(4), pp. 491–518. [CrossRef]
Wieselsberger, C. , 1922, “ New Data on the Laws of Fluid Resistance,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, DC, Report No. NACA-TN-84.
Thangadurai, M. , Singh, M. , Kumar, V. , and Chatterjee, P. K. , 2017, Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on Flow Over a Circular Cylinder in the Sub-Critical Regime: An Experimental Investigation, Springer, New Delhi, India, pp. 1253–1262.
Norberg, C. , and Sunden, B. , 1984, “ Influence of Stream Turbulence Intensity and Eddy Size on the Fluctuating Pressure Forces on a Single Tube,” ASME Symposium on Flow-Induced Vibrations, New Orleans, LA, Dec. 9–14, pp. 43–56. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272175002_Influence_of_stream_turbulence_intensity_and_eddy_size_on_the_fluctuating_pressure_forces_on_a_single_tube
Kravchenko, A. G. , and Moin, P. , 2000, “ Numerical Studies of Flow Over a Circular Cylinder at ReD = 3900,” Phys. Fluids, 12(2), pp. 403–417. [CrossRef]
Dyban, Y. P. , Epik, E. Y. , and Kozlova, L. G. , 1974, “ Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on Flow Past a Circular Cylinder,” Fluid Mech. Sov. Res., 3(5), pp. 75–78.
Basu, R. , 1986, “ Aerodynamic Forces on Structures of Circular Cross-Section—Part 2: The Influence of Turbulence and Three-Dimensional Effects,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 24(1), pp. 33–59. [CrossRef]
Sarma, T. S. , and Sukhatme, S. P. , 1977, “ Local Heat Transfer From a Horizontal Cylinder to Air in Cross Flow: Influence of Free Convection and Free Stream Turbulence,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20(1), pp. 51–56. [CrossRef]
McAdams, W. H. , 1954, Heat Transmission, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Morgan, V. , 1982, “ The Thermal Rating of Overhead-Line Conductors—Part I: The Steady-State Thermal Model,” Electric Power Syst. Res., 5(2), pp. 119–139. [CrossRef]
Wood, D. H. , and Westphal, R. V. , 1988, “ Measurements of the Free-Stream Fluctuations Above a Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Phys. Fluids, 31(10), pp. 2834–2840. [CrossRef]
Hunt, L. , Downs, R. , Kuester, M. , White, E. , and Saric, W. , 2010, “ Flow Quality Measurements in the Klebanoff-Saric Wind Tunnel,” AIAA Paper No. 2010-4538.
Lighthill, M. , 1950, “ Contributions to the Theory of Heat Transfer Through a Laminar Boundary Layer,” Vol. 202, Royal Society of London, London, pp. 359–377.
Krall, K. M. , and Eckert, E. R. G. , 1973, “ Local Heat Transfer Around a Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 95(2), pp. 273–275. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Internal grid-generated turbulence domain. Only the ends of the conductor are shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Inlet grid-generated turbulence domain. Only the ends of the conductor are shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Dimensionless wall distance, Y+, around conductor surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Streamwise turbulence velocity spectrum for case 2. fc∼300 Hz.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of Cp with other references. Data at Re=3000, Re=4020, Re=4600, Re=5000, Re=20,100, Re=27,000, Re=37,400, and Re=38,200 are taken from Refs. [73], [78], [79], [79], [18], [77], [80] and [80], respectively. (a) Cp comparison with other references and (b) effect of Tu on Cp, exp. references.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of Nuθ at Re = 3000. All experimental data are from Ref. [88] and exact data from Ref. [87]. Q: constant heat flux. Tu is negligible if not given.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In