Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Influence of Swirl and Primary Zone Airflow Rate on the Emissions and Performance of a Liquid-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Parneeth Lokini

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India
e-mail: lokinip@iitk.ac.in

Dinesh Kumar Roshan

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India
e-mail: jsdinesh@iitk.ac.in

Abhijit Kushari

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India
e-mail: akushari@iitk.ac.in

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 8, 2018; final manuscript received December 27, 2018; published online January 29, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ashwani K. Gupta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(6), 062009 (Jan 29, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1699; doi: 10.1115/1.4042410 History: Received September 08, 2018; Revised December 27, 2018

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the influence of swirl number (S) and primary zone airflow rate on the temperature, emission indices of the pollutants, and combustion efficiency in an atmospheric pressure liquid-fueled gas turbine (GT) combustor, equipped with a swirling jet air blast atomizer and operated with Jet A1 fuel. Experiments were conducted at three primary zone air flow rates and three swirl numbers (0.49, 0.86, and 1.32). For all the cases, it was found that the NOx emissions were very low (< 2 g/kg of fuel). At all the swirl numbers, an increase in primary zone airflow led to a nonmonotonous variation in CO while minimally affecting the NOx emissions. However, increase in the swirl number generated relatively higher NOx and lower CO owing to higher temperature resulting from efficient combustion caused by a superior fuel–air mixing. Also, the unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC) was quite high at S = 0.49 because of the unmixedness of fuel and air, and zero at S = 0.86 and 1.32. The combustion efficiency was very low (around 60%) at S = 0.49 while almost 100% at S = 0.86 and 1.32. The study conducted demonstrates a significant dependence of emissions and GT performance on the swirl number governed by the convective time scales and the residence time of the combustible mixture in the combustion zone.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Details of the airblast atomizer: (a) cut-view of the airblast atomizer and (b) atomizer manifold

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Combustor diagram illustrating the different air flow inlets

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: (1) 1000 SLPM MFC for quenching air, (2) 1000 SLPM MFC for atomizing air, (3) 4000 SLPM MFC for primary air, (4) needle valve for controlling secondary air mass flow rate, (5) moisture separators associated with pressure gauges (other components of the measurement system are identified in the figure)

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Fig. 8

Variation of combustion efficiency with primary airflow rate for different swirlers

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Fig. 7

Variation of EINOx with the primary airflow rate for different swirlers

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Fig. 4

Variation of temperature with primary airflow rate for different swirlers: (a) primary zone temperature and (b) secondary zone temperature

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Fig. 5

Infrared images of the combustor wall for all the swirl numbers and primary air flow rates: (a) S = 0.49, primary air rate = 23.7 g/s (b) S = 0.49, primary air rate = 30 g/s, and (c) S = 0.49, primary air rate = 38.5 g/s, (d) S = 0.86, primary airrate = 23.7 g/s, (e) S = 0.86, primary air rate = 30 g/s, (f) S = 0.86, primary air rate = 38.5 g/s, (g) S = 1.32, primary air rate = 23.7 g/s, (h) S = 1.32, primary air rate = 30 g/s, and (i) S = 1.32, primary air rate = 38.5 g/s. The combustion air enters from the left and leaves from the right side.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of EICO with the primary airflow rate for different swirlers



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