0
Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Influence of Swirl and Primary Zone Airflow Rate on the Emissions and Performance of a Liquid-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Parneeth Lokini

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India
e-mail: lokinip@iitk.ac.in

Dinesh Kumar Roshan

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India
e-mail: jsdinesh@iitk.ac.in

Abhijit Kushari

Professor
Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016, India
e-mail: akushari@iitk.ac.in

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 8, 2018; final manuscript received December 27, 2018; published online January 29, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ashwani K. Gupta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(6), 062009 (Jan 29, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1699; doi: 10.1115/1.4042410 History: Received September 08, 2018; Revised December 27, 2018

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the influence of swirl number (S) and primary zone airflow rate on the temperature, emission indices of the pollutants, and combustion efficiency in an atmospheric pressure liquid-fueled gas turbine (GT) combustor, equipped with a swirling jet air blast atomizer and operated with Jet A1 fuel. Experiments were conducted at three primary zone air flow rates and three swirl numbers (0.49, 0.86, and 1.32). For all the cases, it was found that the NOx emissions were very low (< 2 g/kg of fuel). At all the swirl numbers, an increase in primary zone airflow led to a nonmonotonous variation in CO while minimally affecting the NOx emissions. However, increase in the swirl number generated relatively higher NOx and lower CO owing to higher temperature resulting from efficient combustion caused by a superior fuel–air mixing. Also, the unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC) was quite high at S = 0.49 because of the unmixedness of fuel and air, and zero at S = 0.86 and 1.32. The combustion efficiency was very low (around 60%) at S = 0.49 while almost 100% at S = 0.86 and 1.32. The study conducted demonstrates a significant dependence of emissions and GT performance on the swirl number governed by the convective time scales and the residence time of the combustible mixture in the combustion zone.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Widiyanto, A. , Kato, S. , Maruyama, N. , and Kojima, Y. , 2003, “Environmental Impact of Fossil Fuel Fired Co-Generation Plants Using a Numerically Standardized LCA Scheme,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 125(1), pp. 9–16. [CrossRef]
Curtis, L. , Rea, W. , Smith, P. , Fenyves, E. , and Pan, Y. , 2006, “Adverse Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollutants,” Environ. Int., 32(6), pp. 815–830. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Vellini, M. , and Tonziello, J. , 2011, “Hydrogen Use in an Urban District: Energy and Environmental Comparisons,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(4), p. 042601. [CrossRef]
Desmira, N. , Kitagawa, K. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2013, “Hydroxyl and Nitric Oxide Distribution in Waste Rice Bran Biofuel-Octanol Flames,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 014501. [CrossRef]
Ramanathan, V. , and Feng, Y. , 2009, “Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change: Global and Regional Perspectives,” Atmos. Environ., 43(1), pp. 37–50. [CrossRef]
Lieuwen, T. , and Yang, V. , 2013, Gas Turbine Emissions, Cambridge University Press, New York, Chap. 7.
Amabile, S. , Cutrone, L. , and Battista, F. , 2010, “Analysis of a Low-Emission Combustion Strategy for a High Performance Trans-Atmospheric Aircraft Engine,” AIAA Paper No. 2010-6549.
Dhanuka, S. K. , Temme, J. E. , Driscoll, J. F. , and Mongia, H. C. , 2009, “Vortex-Shedding and Mixing Layer Effects on Periodic Flashback in a Lean Premixed Prevaporized Gas Turbine Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2901–2908. [CrossRef]
Wünning, J. A. , and Wünning, J. G. , 1997, “Flameless Oxidation to Reduce Thermal NO-Formation,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 23(1), pp. 81–94. [CrossRef]
Sadanandan, R. , Lükerath, R. , Meier, W. , and Wahl, C. , 2011, “Flame Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions in Flameless Combustion Under Gas Turbine Relevant Conditions,” J. Propul. Power, 27(5), pp. 970–980. [CrossRef]
Røkke, P. E. , and Hustad, J. E. , 2005, “Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing With Focus on Stability and Emissions,” Int. J. Thermodyn., 8(4), pp. 167–173. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Johan_Hustad/publication/42539881_Exhaust_Gas_Recirculation_in_Gas_Turbines_for_Reduction_of_CO2_Emissions_Combustion_Testing_with_Focus_on_Stability_and_Emissions/links/00b7d52eea766d184f000000.pdf
Li, H. , ElKady, A. M. , and Evulet, A. T. , 2009, “Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on NOx Formation in Premixed Combustion System,” AIAA Paper No. 2009-226.
Katsuki, M. , and Hasegawa, T. , 1998, “The Science and Technology of Combustion in Highly Preheated Air,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 27(2), pp. 3135–3146.
Choi, G.-M. , and Katsuki, M. , 2000, “New Approach to Low Emission of Nitric Oxides From Furnaces Using Highly Pre-Heated Air Combustion,” J. Energy Inst., 73(194), pp. 18–24. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289122877_New_approach_to_low_emission_of_nitric_oxides_from_furnaces_using_highly_pre-heated_air_combustion
Gupta, A. K. , Bolz, S. , and Hasegawa, T. , 1999, “Effect of Air Preheat Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Flame Structure and Emission,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 121(3), pp. 209–216. [CrossRef]
Arghode, V. K. , Gupta, A. K. , and Bryden, K. M. , 2012, “High Intensity Colorless Distributed Combustion for Ultra Low Emissions and Enhanced Performance,” Appl. Energy, 92, pp. 822–830. [CrossRef]
Arghode, V. K. , Khalil, A. E. E. , and Gupta, A. K. , 2013, “Role of Thermal Intensity on Operational Characteristics and Ultra-Low Emission Distributed Combustion,” Appl. Energy, 111, pp. 930–956. [CrossRef]
Bobba, M. K. , Gopalakrishnan, P. , Periagaram, K. , and Seitzman, J. M. , 2008, “Flame Structure and Stabilization Mechanisms in a Stagnation-Point Reverse-Flow Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(3), p. 031505. [CrossRef]
Zinn, B. T. , Neumeier, Y. , Seitzman, J. M. , Jagoda, J. , and Hashmonay, B. , 2007, “Stagnation Point Reverse Flow Combustor for a Combustion System,” Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA, U.S. Patent No. 7168949. https://patents.google.com/patent/US7168949B2/en
Cavliere, A. , and De Joannon, M. , 2004, “Mild Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 30(4), pp. 329–366. [CrossRef]
Zeldovich, Y. B. , 1946, “The Oxidation of Nitrogen in Combustion and Explosions,” Acta Physicochimica U.R.S.S., 21, pp. 577–628.
Fenimore, C. P. , 1971, “Formation of Nitric Oxide in Premixed Hydrocarbon Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 13(1), pp. 373–380. [CrossRef]
Flamme, M. , Al-Halbouni, A. , Wünning, J. G. , Scherer, V. , Schlieper, M. , Aigner, M. , Lückerath, R. , Noll, B. , Stöhr, R. , and Binninger, B. , 2003, “Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustors Based on Flameless Combustion,” European Combustion Meeting, Orleans, France, Oct. 25–28, pp. 25–28.
Guillou, E. , Cornwell, M. , and Gutmark, E. , 2009, “Application of ‘Flameless’ Combustion for Gas Turbine Engines,” AIAA Paper No. 2009-225.
Gupta, A. K. , Lilley, D. G. , and Syred, N. , 1984, Swirl Flows, Abacus Press, Kent, UK.
Syred, N. , 2006, “A Review of Oscillation Mechanisms and the Role of the Precessing Vortex Core (PVC) in Swirl Combustion Systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 32(2), pp. 93–161. [CrossRef]
Syred, N. , and Beer, J. M. , 1974, “Combustion in Swirling Flows: A Review, Combustion and Flame,” Combust. Flame, 23(2), pp. 143–201. [CrossRef]
Samuelsen, G. S. , 2006, “The Gas Turbine Handbook: Conventional Type Combustion,” U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, Report No. DOE/NETL-2006-1230.
Claypole, T. C. , and Syred, N. , 1981, “The Effect of Swirl Burner Aerodynamics on NOx Formation,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 18(1), pp. 81–89. [CrossRef]
Zhou, L. , Chen, X. , and Zhang, J. , 2002, “Studies on the Effect of Swirl on NO Formation in Methane/Air Turbulent Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 29(2), pp. 2235–2242. [CrossRef]
Pourhoseini, S. H. , and Asadi, R. , 2016, “An Experimental Study of Optimum Angle of Air Swirler Vanes in Liquid Fuel Burners,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(3), p. 032202. [CrossRef]
Juvva, D. , Burela, S. , Mariappan, S. , and Kushari, A. , 2017, “Design Philosophy of a Laboratory Scaled Pragmatic Gas Turbine Combustor,” First National Aerospace Propulsion Conference, Kanpur, India, Mar. 15–17, Paper No. NAPC-2017-023.
Burela, S. , 2015, “Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbine Combustors,” Master's thesis, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.
Lokini, P. , 2018, “Study of Emissions in an Atmospheric Pressure Gas Turbine Combustor Rig,” Master's thesis, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.
Saravanamuttoo, H. , Rogers, G. , and Cohen, H. , 1996, Gas Turbine Theory, 4th ed., Longman Group Limited, Essex, UK.
Beer, J. M. , and Chigier, N. A. , 1972, Combustion Aerodynamics, Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London.
Singh, A. , 2015, “A Fundamental Study of Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. https://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/17068
Collis, D. , and Williams, M. , 1959, “Two-Dimensional Convection From Heated Wires at Low Reynolds Numbers,” J. Fluid Mech., 6(3), pp. 357–384. [CrossRef]
Shaddix, C. R. , 1999, “Correcting Thermocouple Measurements for Radiation Loss: A Critical Review,” 33rd National Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, NM, Aug. 15–17, pp. 99–282.
Jakob, L. M. , 1967, Heat Transfer, Vol. 1, Wiley, New York.
Hodgman, C. D. , Weast, R. C. , and Selby, S. M. , 1961, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data, Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, Boca Raton, FL.
Sasaki, S. , Masuda, H. , Higano, M. , and Hishinuma, N. , 1994, “Simultaneous Measurements of Specific Heat and Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Chromel and Alumel by a Transient Calorimetric Technique,” Int. J. Thermophys., 15(3), pp. 547–565. [CrossRef]
Turns, S. R. , 2000, An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, 2nd ed., WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.
Şöhret, Y. , Kincay, O. , and Karakoc, T. , 2015, “Combustion Efficiency Analysis and Key Emission Parameters of a Turboprop Engine at Various Loads,” J. Energy Inst., 88(4), pp. 490–499. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Details of the airblast atomizer: (a) cut-view of the airblast atomizer and (b) atomizer manifold

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Combustor diagram illustrating the different air flow inlets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: (1) 1000 SLPM MFC for quenching air, (2) 1000 SLPM MFC for atomizing air, (3) 4000 SLPM MFC for primary air, (4) needle valve for controlling secondary air mass flow rate, (5) moisture separators associated with pressure gauges (other components of the measurement system are identified in the figure)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of combustion efficiency with primary airflow rate for different swirlers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation of EINOx with the primary airflow rate for different swirlers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of temperature with primary airflow rate for different swirlers: (a) primary zone temperature and (b) secondary zone temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Infrared images of the combustor wall for all the swirl numbers and primary air flow rates: (a) S = 0.49, primary air rate = 23.7 g/s (b) S = 0.49, primary air rate = 30 g/s, and (c) S = 0.49, primary air rate = 38.5 g/s, (d) S = 0.86, primary airrate = 23.7 g/s, (e) S = 0.86, primary air rate = 30 g/s, (f) S = 0.86, primary air rate = 38.5 g/s, (g) S = 1.32, primary air rate = 23.7 g/s, (h) S = 1.32, primary air rate = 30 g/s, and (i) S = 1.32, primary air rate = 38.5 g/s. The combustion air enters from the left and leaves from the right side.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of EICO with the primary airflow rate for different swirlers

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In