0
Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Modeling in Icing Condition: Three-Dimensional RANS-CFD Versus Blade Element Momentum Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Narges Tabatabaei, Michel J. Cervantes

Department of Engineering Sciences and
Mathematics,
Fluid and Experimental Mechanics,
Luleå University of Technology,
Luleå, Norrbotten 97187, Sweden

Sudhakar Gantasala

Department of Engineering Sciences and
Mathematics,
Product and Production Development,
Luleå University of Technology,
Luleå, Norrbotten 97187, Sweden

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 30, 2018; final manuscript received January 27, 2019; published online April 1, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Christopher Niezrecki.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(7), 071201 (Apr 01, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1480; doi: 10.1115/1.4042713 History: Received June 30, 2018; Revised January 27, 2019

Icing limits the performance of wind turbines in cold climates. The prediction of the aerodynamic performance losses and their distribution due to ice accretion is essential. Blade element momentum (BEM) is the basis of blade structural studies. The accuracy and limitations of this method in icing condition are assessed in the present study. To this purpose, a computational study on the aerodynamic performance of the full-scale NREL 5 MW rotor is performed. Three-dimensional (3D) steady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for both clean and iced blade, as well as BEM calculations using two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sectional airfoil data. The total power calculated by the BEM method is in close agreement with the 3D CFD results for the clean blade. There is a 4% deviation, while it is underestimated by 28% for the iced one. The load distribution along the clean blade span differs between both methods. Load loss due to the ice, predicted by 3D CFD, is 32% in extracted power and the main loss occurs at the regions where the ice horn height exceeds 8% of the chord length.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Mortensen, K. , 2008, “ CFD Simulations of an Airfoil With Leading Edge Ice Accretion,” Master's Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
Schubel, P. J. , and Crossley, R. J. , 2012, “ Wind Turbine Blade Design,” Energies, 5(9), pp. 3425–3449.
Tong, W. , 2010, Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design, WIT Press, Boston, MA.
Johansen, J. , and Sørensen, N. N. , 2004, “ Aerofoil Characteristics From 3D CFD Rotor Computations,” Wind Energy, 7(4), pp. 283–294. [CrossRef]
Mandas, N. , and Cambuli, F. , 2008, “ CFD-RANS Study of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” Ph.D. thesis, Universita' degli Studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. http://veprints.unica.it/84/1/carcangiu_carlo_enrico.pdf
Arramach, J. , Boutammachte, N. , Bouatem, A. , and Al Mers, A. , 2017, “ Prediction of the Wind Turbine Performance by Using a Modified BEM Theory With an Advanced Brake State Model,” Energy Procedia, 118, pp. 149–157. [CrossRef]
Refan, M. , and Hangan, H. , 2012, “ Aerodynamic Performance of a Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 134(2), p. 021013. [CrossRef]
Li, Y. , Castro, A. M. , Martin, J. E. , Sinokrot, T. , Prescott, W. , and Carrica, P. M. , 2017, “ Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics/Multibody Dynamics Method for Wind Turbine Aero-Servo-Elastic Simulation Including Drivetrain Dynamics,” Renewable Energy, 101, pp. 1037–1051. [CrossRef]
Hung-Chieh, C. , 2017, “ Application of the Fictitious Domain Method to Flow Problems With Complex Geometries,” Ph.D. thesis, Texas A&M University, Austin, TX. http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/161671
Make, M. , and Vaz, G. , 2015, “ Analyzing Scaling Effects on Offshore Wind Turbines Using CFD,” Renewable Energy, 83, pp. 1326–1340. [CrossRef]
Ernst, B. , Seume, J. R. , and Herbst, F. , 2016, “ Effect of Turbulence and Transition Models on the CFD-Based Performance Prediction of Wind Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56728.
Ma, D. , Zhao, Y. , Qiao, Y. , and Li, G. , 2015, “ Effects of Relative Thickness on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoil at a Low Reynolds Number,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 28(4), pp. 1003–1015. [CrossRef]
Fernando, V. , Marcelo, R. , and Adrian, I. , 2012, “ Numerical Study of Flow Around Iced Wind Turbine Airfoil,” Eng. Appl. Comput. Fluid Mech., 6(1), pp. 39–46.
Chi, X. , Zhu, B. , Shih, T. , Addy, H. , and Choo, Y. , 2004, “ CFD Analysis of the Aerodynamics of a Business-Jet Airfoil With Leading-Edge Ice Accretion,” AIAA Paper No. 2004-560.
Krogstad, P. , and Eriksen Egil, P. , 2013, “‘ Blind Test’ Calculations of the Performance and Wake Development for a Model Wind Turbine,” Renewable Energy, 50, pp. 325–333. [CrossRef]
Krogstad, P. , and Adaramola, M. , 2012, “ Performance and Near Wake Measurements of a Model Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine,” Wind Energy, 15(5), pp. 743–756. [CrossRef]
Chow, R. , and van Dam, C. P. , 2012, “ Verification of Computational Simulations of the NREL 5 MW Rotor With a Focus on Inboard Flow Separation,” Wind Energy, 15(8), pp. 967–981. [CrossRef]
Zanon, A. , De Gennaro, M. , and Kühnelt, H. , 2018, “ Wind Energy Harnessing of the NREL 5 MW Reference Wind Turbine in Icing Conditions Under Different Operational Strategies,” Renewable Energy, 115(Suppl. C), pp. 760–772. [CrossRef]
Abbott, I. H. , Von Doenhoff, A. E. , and Stivers, L. S. , 1945, “ Summary of Airfoil Data,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Langley Field, VA, Report No. NACA-TR-824 https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930090976.
Timmer, W. A. , and van Rooij, R. P. J. O. M. , 2003, “ Summary of the Delft University Wind Turbine Dedicated Airfoils,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125(4), pp. 488–496. [CrossRef]
van Rooij, R. P. J. O. M. , and Timmer, W. A. , 2003, “ Roughness Sensitivity Considerations for Thick Rotor Blade Airfoils,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125, pp. 468–478. http://lr.home.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Faculteit/LR/Organisatie/Afdelingen_en_Leerstoelen/Afdeling_AEWE/Wind_Energy/Research/Publications/Publications_2003/doc/Rough_Airfoils_SOL_Vol125_RR2003.pdf
Llorente, E. , Gorostidi, A. , Jacobs, M. , Timmer, W. A. , Munduate, X. , and Pires, O. , 2014, “ Wind Tunnel Tests of Wind Turbine Airfoils at High Reynolds Numbers,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 524, p. 012012.
Kooijman, H. J. T. , Lindenburg, C. , Winkelaar, D. , and vander Hooft, E. L. , 2003, “ Aero-Elastic Modelling of the DOWEC 6 MW Pre-Design in PHATAS,” Report No. ECN-CX-01-135.
Battisti, L. , 2013, “ Icing on Wind Turbines,” Ph.D. thesis, Università degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy.
Broeren, A. P. , Diebold, J. M. , and Bragg, M. B. , 2013, “ Aerodynamic Classification of Swept-Wing Ice Accretion,” NASA, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No. NASA/TM-2013-216381.
Bragg, M. B. , 1986, “ An Experimental Study of the Aerodynamics of a NACA 0012 Airfoil With a Simulated Glaze Ice Accretion,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. 52.
Battisti, L. , 2015, “ Icing Impacts and Mitigation Systems,” Wind Turbines in Cold Climates, Anonymous, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland.
Beaugendre, H. , Morency, F. , and Habashi, W. G. , 2006, “ Development of a Second Generation In-Flight Icing Simulation Code,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 128(2), pp. 378–387. [CrossRef]
Hochart, C. , Fortin, G. , Perron, J. , and Ilinca, A. , 2008, “ Wind Turbine Performance Under Icing Conditions,” Wind Energy, 11(4), pp. 319–333. [CrossRef]
Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services, 2010, Guideline for the Certification of Wind Turbines, Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg, Germany.
Papadakis, M. , Alansatan, S. , and Wong, S. , 2000, “ Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Symmetric NACA Section With Simulated Ice Shapes,” AIAA Paper No. 2000-98.
DeGennaro, A. M. , Rowley, C. W. , and Martinelli, L. , 2015, “ Uncertainty Quantification for Airfoil Icing Using Polynomial Chaos Expansions,” J. Aircr., 52(5), pp. 1404–1411. [CrossRef]
Hansen, M. O. L. , 2015, Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, 2nd ed., Routledge, New York.
ANSYS, 2013, ANSYS CFX-Solver Modeling Guide Release 15.0, ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
ANSYS, 2013, ANSYS CFX-Solver Theory Guide Release 15.0, ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Menter, F. , 1993, “ Zonal Two Equation k-w Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows,” 23rd Fluid Dynamics, Plasmadynamics, and Lasers Conference, Orlando, FL, July 6–9, pp. 1–12.
Ducoin, A. , Astolfi, J. A. , Deniset, F. , and Sigrist, J. , 2009, “ Computational and Experimental Investigation of Flow Over a Transient Pitching Hydrofoil,” Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 28(6), pp. 728–743. [CrossRef]
Menter, F. R. , 1992, “ Improved Two-Equation K-Omega Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows,” NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
Tabatabaei, N. , Cervantes, M. J. , Trivedi, C. , and Aidanpää, J. , 2016, “ Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Symmetric NACA Section With Simulated Ice Shapes,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 753, p. 022055.
Tabatabaei, N. , Cervantes, M. J. , and Trivedi, C. , 2018, “ Time-Dependent Effects of Glaze Ice on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airfoil,” Int. J. Rotat. Mach., 2018, p. 2981739.
Tabatabaei, N. , Cervantes, M. J. , and Trivedi, C. , 2018, “ Investigation of the Numerical Methodology of a Model Wind Turbine Simulation,” J. Appl. Fluid Mech., 11(3), pp. 527–544. [CrossRef]
Papadakis, M. , Gile Laflin, B. , Youssef, G. , and Ratvasky, T. , 2001, “ Aerodynamic Scaling Experiments With Simulated Ice Accretions,” AIAA Paper No. 2001-833.
Furst, J. , Straka, P. , Příhoda, J. , and Šimurda, D. , 2013, “ Comparison of Several Models of the Laminar/Turbulent Transition,” EPJ Web Conf., 45, p. 01032.
Eggenspieler, G. , 2012, Modelling LaminarTurbulent Transition Processes, ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Shen, W. Z. , Hansen, M. O. L. , and Sørensen, J. N. , 2009, “ Determination of the Angle of Attack on Rotor Blades,” Wind Energy, 12(1), pp. 91–98. [CrossRef]
Guntur, S. , and Sørensen, N. N. , 2014, “ An Evaluation of Several Methods of Determining the Local Angle of Attack on Wind Turbine Blades,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 555(1), p. 012045.
Hansen, M. O. L. , Sørensen, N. N. , Sørensen, J. N. , and Michelsen, J. A. , 1998, “ Extraction of Lift, Drag and Angle of Attack From Computed 3-D Viscous Flow Around a Rotating Blade,” European Wind Energy Conference, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 499–502.
Hansen, M. O. L. , and Johansen, J. , 2004, “ Tip Studies Using CFD and Comparison With Tip Loss Models,” Wind Energy, 7(4), pp. 343–356. [CrossRef]
Gantasala, S. , Tabatabaei, N. , Cervantes, M. J. , and Aidanpää, J. , “ A Methodology to Simulate the Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbine With Iced Blades,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. (submitted).

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Fundamental airfoils in 5-MW NREL blade, sectioning and some ice profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Ice types (flow field-based) [27]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Ice profile: (a) simulated in [28], (b) simulated in [29], and (c) estimated in this work

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Radial distribution of ice profile on the blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The velocity triangle on an airfoil section of the blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The seven model domain, set boundaries and the mesh configuration around the airfoil

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Aerodynamic forces definition: tangential and normal components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The 3D model and the boundary condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Blocking strategy around the blade at the inner domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Radial distribution of the AOA (“S” = “section”)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Radial distribution of the force components for a clean blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Radial distribution of force components at iced blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Chordwise variation of the pressure coefficient for 2D and 3D simulations at section 8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Streamlines over a section (section 12) of the clean and iced blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Chordwise pressure distributions of the iced and clean profiles of a section near tip (section 12)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Suction side limit surface streaklines for iced and clean blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Flow pattern on the suction side near the tip for both iced and clean blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Chordwise pressure distributions of the iced and clean profiles of a section near the hub (section 9)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Chordwise pressure distributions of the iced and clean profiles of a section near hub (section 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Pressure side limit surface streamlines for the iced and clean blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Radial distribution of axial force for iced and clean blade

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In