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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Experimental Study of the Wake Regions in Wind Farms

[+] Author and Article Information
Alaa S. Hasan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: mahmoud9@uwm.edu

Randall S. Jackson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: rsj2@uwm.edu

Ryoichi S. Amano

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: amano@uwm.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 4, 2018; final manuscript received February 17, 2019; published online March 29, 2019. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(5), 051209 (Mar 29, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1687; doi: 10.1115/1.4042968 History: Received September 04, 2018; Revised February 17, 2019

It is desired, through this work, to investigate in detail the scenario that takes place behind a single wind turbine unit by focusing on three parameters; average axial wind velocity component, velocity deficit, and total turbulence intensity. The testing was done at mainstream velocity, U, of 5.2 m/s, u and v velocity components were captured by x-probe dual-sensor hot wire anemometer. A massive amount of point data was obtained, which then processed by a matlab script to plot the desired contours through the successive transverse sections along the entire length of the test section. By monitoring the previously mentioned flow parameters, the regions of low velocity and high turbulence can be avoided, while the location of the subsequent wind turbine is selected. The estimation of the distance, at which the inlet flow field will restore its original characteristics after being mixed through the rotor blades, is very important as this is the distance that should separate two successive turbines in an inline configuration wind farm to guarantee the optimum performance and to extract the maximum power out of the subsequent array of turbines. It is found that the hub height axial velocity recovery at six rotor diameters downstream distance is only 82%. This fact means that the power extraction out of the downstream turbine in an inline configuration wind farm is only 55% of the upstream turbine if the same free stream velocity and blade design are adopted.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Wake profiles of a horizontal-axis wind turbine [1]

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Fig. 2

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee wind tunnel sections

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Fig. 3

Model wind turbine design [34]

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Fig. 4

NACA4424 blade profile [34]

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Fig. 5

The entire setup in the test section during the experiment

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Fig. 6

locations of the transverse planes array

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Fig. 7

Average axial velocity of nine planes. (a) Plane 1 at downstream distance = ¼ D. (b) Plane 2 at downstream distance = ½ D. (c) Plane 3 at downstream distance = ¾ D. (d) Plane 4 at downstream distance = D. (e) Plane 5 at downstream distance = 1¼ D. (f) Plane 6 at downstream distance = 1½ D. (g) Plane 8 at downstream distance = 2 D. (h) Plane 10 at downstream distance = 3 D. (i) Plane 12 at downstream distance = 4 D.

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Fig. 8

Average vertical velocity of nine planes. (a) Plane 1 at downstream distance = ¼ D. (b) Plane 2 at downstream distance = ½ D. (c) Plane 3 at downstream distance = ¾ D. (d) Plane 4 at downstream distance = D. (e) Plane 5 at downstream distance = 1¼ D. (f) Plane 6 at downstream distance = 1½ D. (g) Plane 8 at downstream distance = 2 D. (h) Plane 10 at downstream distance = 3 D. (i) Plane 12 at downstream distance = 4 D.

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Fig. 9

Velocity deficit of nine planes. (a) Plane 1 at downstream distance = ¼ D. (b) Plane 2 at downstream distance = ½ D. (c) Plane 3 at downstream distance = ¾ D. (d) Plane 4 at downstream distance = D. (e) Plane 5 at downstream distance = 1¼ D. (f) Plane 6 at downstream distance = 1½ D. (g) Plane 8 at downstream distance = 2 D. (h) Plane 10 at downstream distance = 3 D. (i) Plane 12 at downstream distance = 4 D.

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Fig. 10

Turbulence intensity of nine planes. (a) Plane 1 at downstream distance = ¼ D. (b) Plane 2 at downstream distance = ½ D. (c) Plane 3 at downstream distance = ¾ D. (d) Plane 4 at downstream distance = D. (e) Plane 5 at downstream distance = 1¼ D. (f) Plane 6 at downstream distance = 1½ D. (g) Plane 8 at downstream distance = 2 D. (h) Plane 10 at downstream distance = 3 D. (i) Plane 12 at downstream distance = 4 D.

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Fig. 11

Horizontal centerlines axial velocity deficit at normalized different downstream distances

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Fig. 12

Vertical centerlines axial velocity deficit at normalized different downstream distances

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Fig. 13

Horizontal centerlines turbulence intensity at normalized different downstream distances

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Fig. 14

Vertical centerlines turbulence intensity at normalized different downstream distances

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Fig. 15

Wake characteristics along the axial direction at hub height for free stream velocity of 5.2 m/s

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