Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Utilization of Hydroturbines in Wastewater Treatment Plants

[+] Author and Article Information
Ahmad I. Abbas

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer Street, Room 775,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: aiabbas@uwm.edu

Mohammad D. Qandil

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer Street, Room 775,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: mdqandil@uwm.edu

Muhannad R. Al-Haddad

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer Street, Room 775,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: alhadda3@uwm.edu

Mandana S. Saravani

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 N. Cramer Street, Room 775,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: sheikhz2@uwm.edu

Ryoichi S. Amano

Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: amano@uwm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 4, 2018; final manuscript received February 17, 2019; published online April 22, 2019. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(6), 062011 (Apr 22, 2019) (5 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1688; doi: 10.1115/1.4042969 History: Received September 04, 2018; Revised February 17, 2019

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant energy consumer, yet there are several opportunities for implementing on-site power generation systems. Within the treatment process, the high flow rate of effluent is produced and discharged to a nearby water body by gravity. Thus, hydroturbines can be utilized to generate power in such an application due to a difference in elevation and high flow rate. This paper presents a case study of introducing a hydroturbine in a WWTP in Wisconsin and evaluating the power output in addition to determining the energy savings. The WWTP considered in this study has an effluent flow rate of 190 MGD (million gallons per day) and elevation difference of 3 m (10 ft) between the final stage of treatment and the discharge point. Based on the parameters above; hubless rim-drive Kaplan type hydroturbine (RDT) is the optimal choice to be used in such an application. The RDT is designed and optimized by using in-house code. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed model, and the system is simulated through homer software to validate the results generated by the CFD. The expected savings is estimated to be 1564 MWh/yr.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Stein-Brzozowska, G. , Bergins, C. , Kukoski, A. , Wu, S. , Agraniotis, M. , and Kakaras, E. , 2016, “ The Current Trends in Conventional Power Plant Technology on Two Continents From the Perspective of Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Contractor and Original Equipment Manufacturer,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(4), p. 044501. [CrossRef]
Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, 2017, “ Renewables 2017 Global Status Report,” REN21 Secretariat, Paris, France, accessed Aug. 26, 2018, http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/17-8399_GSR_2017_Full_Report_0621_Opt.pdf
Hamududu, B. , and Killingtveit, A. , 2012, “ Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower,” Energies, 5(2), pp. 305–322. [CrossRef]
U.S. EIA, 2018, “Annual Energy Production and Consumption by Source,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, accessed Aug. 26, https://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/browser/?tbl=T10.01#/?f=A&start=1949&end=2017&charted=6-7-8-9-14
U.S. EIA, 2018, “ Electric Power Monthly Tables 1.3.B, 1.10.B, 1.14.B and 1.15.B,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, accessed Aug. 26, https://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/
Chae, K. J. , Kim, I. S. , Ren, X. , and Cheon, K. H. , 2015, “ Reliable Energy Recovery in an Existing Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant With a Flow-Variable Micro-Hydropower System,” Energy Convers. Manage., 101, pp. 681–688. [CrossRef]
Power, C. , McNabola, A. , and Coughlan, P. , 2014, “ Development of an Evaluation Method for Hydropower Energy Recovery in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Case Studies in Ireland and the UK,” Sustainable Energy Technol. Assess., 7, pp. 166–177. [CrossRef]
Capua, M. , Dzwonkoski, J. , Harris, C. , and Plummer, J. , 2014, Reclamation of Power in Wastewater Treatment Facilities, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA.
Wong, K. V. , 2014, “ Engineering Solutions to the Greenhouse Gases Generated by Hydroelectric Plants,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(2), p. 024701. [CrossRef]
Prasad, S. , 2010, “ Energy Efficiency, Sources and Sustainability,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(2), p. 020301. [CrossRef]
Yan, X. , Liang, X. , Ouyang, W. , Liu, Z. , Liu, B. , and Lan, J. , 2017, “ A Review of Progress and Applications of Ship Shaft-Less Rim-Driven Thrusters,” Ocean Eng., 144, pp. 142–156. [CrossRef]
Song, B. W. , Wang, Y. J. , and Tian, W. L. , 2015, “ Open Water Performance Comparison Between Hub-Type and Hubless Rim Driven Thrusters Based on CFD Method,” Ocean Eng., 103, pp. 55–63. [CrossRef]
Tuohy, P. , 2011, “ Development of Canned Line-Start Rim-Driven Electric Machines,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Derakhshan, S. , and Kasaeian, N. , 2014, “ Optimization, Numerical, and Experimental Study of a Propeller Pump as Turbine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 012005. [CrossRef]
Abbas, A. I. , Sakamoto, T. , Saravani, M. S. , Amano, R. S. , Millevolte, J. , and Lequesne, B. , 2017, “ Optimization of Kaplan Hydro-Turbine at Very Low Head With Rim-Driven Generator,” ASME Paper No. POWER-ICOPE2017-3564.
Dixon, S. L. , and Hall, C. A. , 2013, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery, 7th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Waltham, MA.
Yen, Y. , ElGammal, T. , Amano, R. S. , Millevote, J. , Mueller, R. J. , and Lequesne, B. , 2016, “ Numerical Optimization on Micro Kaplan Hydro Turbine System,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM2016-7575.
Abbas, A. I. , and Amano, R. S. , 2017, “ Optimization of Intake and Draft Tubes of a Kaplan Micro Hydro-Turbine,” AIAA Paper No. 2017-4807.
Amano, R. S. , and Sunden, B. , 2010, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer: Emerging Topics, 1st ed., WIT Press, Billerica, MA.
Nicoud, F. , and Ducros, F. , 1999, “ Subgrid-Scale Stress Modelling Based on the Square of the Velocity Gradient Tensor,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 62(3), pp. 183–200. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Renewable energy production in the U.S. in 2017

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Average daily WWTP's effluent flow rate for each month (in L/s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Computer-aided design for the proposed hubless RDT: (a) front view and (b) isometric view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Computer-aided design for the proposed hubless turbine stator: (a) front view and (b) isometric view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Geometry of hydroturbine simulation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Hydroturbine configuration within the system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Monthly average electric production (in kW)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Mesh independent study results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Performance curve of the proposed hydroturbine



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In