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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Microscopic Determination of Remaining Oil Distribution in Sandstones With Different Permeability Scales Using Computed Tomography Scanning

[+] Author and Article Information
Yongfei Yang

Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil & Gas Development (China University of Petroleum (East China)),
Ministry of Education,
Qingdao 266580, China;
Research Center of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media,
School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: yangyongfei@upc.edu.cn

Haiyuan Yang

Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil & Gas Development (China University of Petroleum (East China)),
Ministry of Education,
Qingdao 266580, China;
Research Center of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media,
School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: s17020269@s.upc.edu.cn

Liu Tao

Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil & Gas Development (China University of Petroleum (East China)),
Ministry of Education,
Qingdao 266580, China;
Research Center of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media,
School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: s18020157@s.upc.edu.cn

Jun Yao

Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil & Gas Development (China University of Petroleum (East China)),
Ministry of Education,
Qingdao 266580, China;
Research Center of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media,
School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: RCOGFR_UPC@126.com

Wendong Wang

Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil & Gas Development (China University of Petroleum (East China)),
Ministry of Education,
Qingdao 266580, China;
Research Center of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media,
School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: wwdong@upc.edu.cn

Kai Zhang

Key Laboratory of Unconventional Oil & Gas Development (China University of Petroleum (East China)),
Ministry of Education,
Qingdao 266580, China;
Research Center of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media,
School of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: zhangkai@upc.edu.cn

Linda Luquot

Hydrosciences Montpellier,
Université Montpellier, CNRS, IRD,
300 Avenue du Pr. Emile Jeanbrau CC57, 34090 Montpellier, France

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received November 21, 2017; final manuscript received February 15, 2019; published online March 27, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(9), 092903 (Mar 27, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1659; doi: 10.1115/1.4043131 History: Received November 21, 2017; Accepted February 18, 2019

To investigate the characteristics of oil distribution in porous media systems during a high water cut stage, sandstones with different permeability scales of 53.63 × 10−3 μm2 and 108.11 × 10−3 μm2 were imaged under a resolution of 4.12 μm during a water flooding process using X-ray tomography. Based on the cluster-size distribution of oil segmented from the tomography images and through classification using the shape factor and Euler number, the transformation of the oil distribution pattern in different injection stages was studied for samples with different pore structures. In general, the distribution patterns of an oil cluster continuously change during water injection. Large connected oil clusters break off into smaller segments. The sandstone with a higher permeability (108.11 × 10−3 μm2) shows the larger change in distribution pattern, and the remaining oil is trapped in the pores with a radius of approximately 7–12 μm. Meanwhile, some disconnected clusters merge together and lead to a re-connection during the high water cut period. However, the pore structure becomes compact and complex, the residual nonwetting phase becomes static and is difficult to move; and thus, all distribution patterns coexist during the entire displacement process and mainly distribute in pores with a radius of 8–12 μm. For the pore-scale entrapment characteristics of the oil phase during a high water cut period, different enhance oil recovery (EOR) methods should be considered in sandstones correspondent to each permeability scale.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Histogram of the different gray-scale values for CT images (left: sample with multiphase fluid; right: dry sample)

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Fig. 4

Image processing procedure (left: raw CT images, middle: the filtered images, right: the corresponding segmented image. Oil: black, brine: dark gray, rock: light gray, resolution: 4.12 μm)

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Fig. 2

A simplified schematic diagram of the displacement experiment based on CT scanning

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Fig. 1

Schematic sequence of the experimental procedure (Swc: connate water saturation; Sor: residual oil saturation)

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Fig. 5

Euclidean-processing workflow (left: binary image; middle: Euclidean distance map; right: segmentation of pore space)

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Fig. 6

Connectivity function curves

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Fig. 10

Radius frequency distribution curves of pores with oil saturated

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Fig. 7

Remaining oil saturation curves

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Fig. 8

Three-dimensional visualization of remaining oil after different brine PV injections

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Fig. 9

Change of distribution pattern during water displacement

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Fig. 11

The main corresponding distribution area of remaining oil in PNM (after 50PV water flooding, tubes stand for throat and sphere represents remaining oil in pore)

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