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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Microscopic Studies of Immiscible Displacement Behavior in Interconnected Fractures and Cavities

[+] Author and Article Information
Qingbang Meng

Key Laboratory of Tectonics and Petroleum Resources,
China University of Geosciences,
Ministry of Education,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: mengqb@cug.edu.cn

Sai Xu

Key Laboratory of Tectonics and Petroleum Resources,
China University of Geosciences,
Ministry of Education,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: 1948855945@qq.com

Jianchao Cai

Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory,
Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics,
China University of Geosciences,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: caijc@cug.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received December 19, 2018; final manuscript received March 4, 2019; published online March 27, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Gensheng Li.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(9), 092901 (Mar 27, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1897; doi: 10.1115/1.4043136 History: Received December 19, 2018; Accepted March 04, 2019

Carbonate rocks are generally highly heterogeneous that make it difficult to accurately assess the behavior of fluid flow and transport in them. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the oil–water displacement in carbonate reservoirs by mimicking the typical pore vugs of carbonates through fabricating glass micromodels. The micromodels were saturated completely with oil, and then water was injected continuously at a constant rate until a steady state was achieved. After that, the injection rate was increased in steps. For each injection rate, water was continuously injected until a steady state was achieved and then increased to the next injection rate. For each injection rate, the displacement process of oil and water in the micromodel was captured by a digital video camera. Experimental results show that water breakthrough occurs in pure-fracture channels earlier than that in fracture-cavity channels. The wettability and pore networks of fractures and vugs have a significant impact on the distribution of trapped oil. Oil is preferential to be trapped in the oil-wet zone and the zone where deviation from the mainstream line starts. Residual oil saturation shows no noticeable change with relatively low injection rates. However, when the injection rate exceeds a critical value, residual oil saturation decreases with an increase in the injection rate.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Glass micromodels used in experiments: (a) Micromodel-1 (M-1) and (b) Micromodel-2 (M-2)

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

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Fig. 3

Trapped oil after water flooding experiment: (a) oil–water interface is visible and (b) trapped oil was dyed red

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Fig. 4

Plots of oil recovery and water cut versus pore volume (PV) at primary displacement stage for (a) M-1 and (b) M-2

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Fig. 5

Configurations of trapped oil after primary water flooding (injection rate equals to 0.001 ml/min) in (a) M-1 and (b) M-2

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Fig. 6

Dynamics of oil and water distribution during primary water flooding in the cavities of M-1

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Fig. 7

Distribution of trapped oil after water flooding at each injection rate for M-1: (a) 0.003 ml/min, (b) 0.006 ml/min, (c) 0.01 ml/min, (d) 0.03 ml/min, (e) 0.06 ml/min, and (f) 0.1 ml/min

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Fig. 8

Distribution of trapped oil after water flooding at each injection rate for M-2: (a) 0.003 ml/min, (b) 0.006 ml/min, (c) 0.01 ml/min, (d) 0.03 ml/min, (e) 0.06 ml/min, and (f) 0.1 ml/min.

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Fig. 9

Variation of residual oil saturation with an increase in injection rate

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