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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental Investigation of the Damage Mechanisms of Drilling Mud in Fractured Tight gas Reservoir

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhouhua Wang

Associate Professor
State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: wangzhouhua@126.com

Yilong Qiu

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: 852706462@qq.com

Ping Guo

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: 449631278@qq.com

Jianfen Du

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: dujianfen@163.com

Huang Liu

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: luckboy3008@126.com

Yisheng Hu

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: yishenghu@hotmail.com

Fanhua Zeng

Petroleum Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK, Canada S4S 0A2
e-mail: fanhua.zeng@uregina.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received October 22, 2018; final manuscript received March 15, 2019; published online April 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ray (Zhenhua) Rui.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(9), 092907 (Apr 04, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1801; doi: 10.1115/1.4043247 History: Received October 22, 2018; Accepted March 16, 2019

Mud pollution seriously restricts the development of tight gas reservoirs. For the Dabei tight gas field in Tarim Basin, lots of wells show a higher skin factor on the pressure buildup test curves after drilling. Little researches on mud damage have been conducted for the fracture gas reservoir. Based on the previous researches, a dynamic filtration experimental method utilizing full diameter cores is established for fracture-porous cores under reservoir temperature. Twelve sets of dynamic filtration tests with full diameter cores (D = 10 cm) on the established device and some cuttings microscopic analysis on environmental-scanning-electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray detector (ESEM/EDX) have been conducted. The effects of core type, fracture width, pressure difference, and mud type on mud damage are all investigated. The results show that the fractured cores suffer a more serious damage degree and exhibit lower return permeability ratio, compared with the porous cores. And the damage degree of fractured cores is proportional to the fracture width and pressure difference. The solids invasion is the key factor damaging the fractured cores, while the porous is mainly impaired by the filtrate invasion. This paper provides a scientific, in-depth understanding of the behaviors, laws, and characteristics of mud damage in fractured and porous cores.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Core holder design for fractured core flow evaluation systems [25]

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Fig. 2

The hydraulic fracturing apparatus

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Fig. 4

The fractured core

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Fig. 5

The experimental setups of dynamic mud filtration for full diameter cores

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Fig. 6

The conventional and improved core holder probes: (a) the conventional core holder probe and (b) the improved core holder probe

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Fig. 7

The filling method of the meshes for different width fractures: (a) small fracture, Wf = 100 μm; (b) middle fracture, Wf = 500 μm; and (c) large fracture Wf = 1000 μm

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Fig. 8

The cumulative frequency distribution curves of mud grains

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Fig. 9

The sampling methods of cuttings for matrix and fracture cores: (a) fracture cuttings and (b) matrix cuttings

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Fig. 10

The FR and FL contrast in porous and fractured cores: (a) leak-off rate and (b) cumulative filtration loss

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Fig. 11

Mud invasion microscopic features in porous and fractured cores: (a) core no. 1 and (b) fracture surface of core no. 12

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Fig. 12

The testing results contrast of different fracture width cores: (a) leak-off rate and (b) cumulative filtration loss

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Fig. 13

The invasive maximum particle size in different fracture width cores: (a) core no. 2, (b) core no. 3, and (c) core no. 4

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Fig. 14

The testing results contrast of different ΔP in porous cores

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Fig. 15

The DR and RR contrast of different ΔP in porous cores

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Fig. 16

The testing results contrast of different ΔP in fractured cores

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Fig. 17

The DR and RR contrast of different ΔP in porous cores

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Fig. 18

The invasive maximum particle size under different ΔP: (a) core no. 10, 5 MPa, (b) core no. 11, 7 MPa, and (c) core no. 12, 10 MPa

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Fig. 19

The testing results of OBM and WBM in fractured cores

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Fig. 20

The testing results of OBM and WBM in porous cores

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Fig. 21

The contrast of the residual particles' components between the porous and fracture cores [43]: (a) fracture cuttings of core no. 2, (b) fracture cuttings of core no. 3, (c) fracture cuttings of core no. 4, (d) porous cuttings of core no. 2, (e) porous cuttings of core no. 3, and (f) porous cuttings of core no. 4

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Fig. 22

The positions of the residual solid particles in fracture cores [45]: (a) local mud cake, core no. 2, (b) local mud cake, core no. 2, and (c) particle aggregation core no. 2

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Fig. 23

The positions of the residual solid particles in porous cores [45]: (a) filling pore surface core no. 3, (b) filling pores core no. 3, and (c) filling throat core no. 3

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