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Research Papers: Petroleum Wells-Drilling/Production/Construction

Organophilic Clay-Based Drilling Fluids for Mitigation of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs Instability and Formation Damage

[+] Author and Article Information
Hafiz Mudaser Ahmad

Department of Chemical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: g201408780@kfupm.edu.sa

Muhammad Shahzad Kamal

Center for Integrative Petroleum Research (CIPR),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: shahzadmalik@kfupm.edu.sa

Mohamed Mahmoud

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mmahmoud@kfupm.edu.sa

S.M. Shakil Hussain

Center for Integrative Petroleum Research (CIPR),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: smshakil@kfupm.edu.sa

Mohamed Abouelresh

Center for Integrative Petroleum Research (CIPR),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: abouelresh@kfupm.edu.sa

Mamdouh A. Al-Harthi

Department of Chemical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mamdouh@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received December 5, 2018; final manuscript received March 16, 2019; published online April 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(9), 093102 (Apr 04, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1875; doi: 10.1115/1.4043248 History: Received December 05, 2018; Accepted March 16, 2019

High-performance drilling fluid was designed for unconventional reservoirs to minimize the formation damage and borehole instability using organophilic clay treated with trimethyloctylammonium bromide, novel in-house synthesized gemini surfactant, and a high-molecular weight polymer. This gemini surfactant has not been reported in the literature for drilling fluid applications. The performance of designed drilling fluid was evaluated and compared with the base drilling fluid (4 w/v.% bentonite dispersion water). Shale dispersion, linear swelling, filtration, and rheological experiments were performed to investigate the effect of drilling fluids on borehole stability and formation damage. The combined use of organophilic clay and surfactant in the drilling fluid formulation reduced the shale dispersion up to 89%. The linear swelling experiment of shale sample shows 10% swelling of the core in the modified drilling fluid while in base fluid 13% swelling of shale was observed. It was found that modified drilling fluid interactions with shale were greatly reduced using a surfactant and associative polymer in the drilling fluid formulation. Rheological properties of drilling fluids were stable, and filtration characteristics showed that the filtrate volume was within the acceptable limit. The designed drilling fluid made a thin and impermeable filter cake that prevents the invasion of drilling fluid into the formation. This study opens a new direction to reduce the formation damage and borehole instability using organophilic clay, surfactant and high-molecular weight additive in water-based drilling fluid.

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Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Fluids , Drilling , Shales , Water
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Digital photograph of shale cuttings

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Fig. 2

Viscosity profile of base fluid at different temperatures

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Fig. 3

Viscosity profile of modified fluid with nanocomposite at different temperatures

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Fig. 4

Gel strengths of base fluid at different temperatures

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Fig. 5

Gel strength of modified fluid at different temperatures

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Fig. 6

Yield stress of base and modified fluid at different temperatures

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Fig. 7

Storage and loss modulus of base and modified fluid at 100 °C

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Fig. 8

Shale recovery performance of water, base, and modified fluid

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Fig. 9

Swelling of shale sample with water, base, and modified fluid

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Fig. 10

Shale samples: (a) neat sample, (b) immersed in modified drilling fluid, (c) immersed in base drilling fluid, and (d) immersed in water

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Fig. 11

HTHP filtration experiment of the base and modified fluid at different temperatures

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