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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Study on Pore Structures of Tight Sandstone Reservoirs Based on Nitrogen Adsorption, High-Pressure Mercury Intrusion, and Rate-Controlled Mercury Intrusion

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinli Zhao

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: zhaoxinli17@mails.ucas.edu.cn

Zhengming Yang

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China;
Department of Porous Flow & Fluid Mechanics,
Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,
PetroChina Company Limited,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: yzhm69@petrochina.com.cn

Wei Lin

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China;
Department of Earth and Planetary Science,
University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
e-mail: linwei15@mails.ucas.edu.cn

Shengchun Xiong

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China;
Department of Porous Flow & Fluid Mechanics,
Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,
PetroChina Company Limited,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: xiongshengchun@petrochina.com.cn

Yutian Luo

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China;
Department of Porous Flow & Fluid Mechanics,
Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,
PetroChina Company Limited,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: luoyutian@petrochina.com.cn

Zhiyuan Wang

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: wangzhiyuan14@mails.ucas.edu.cn

Ting Chen

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: chenting15@mails.ucas.edu.cn

Debin Xia

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: xiadebin16@mails.ucas.edu.cn

Zhenkai Wu

School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China;
Institute of Porous Flow and Fluid Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Langfang, Hebei 065007, China
e-mail: wuzhenkai17@mails.ucas.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received July 17, 2018; final manuscript received April 22, 2019; published online May 20, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Fanhua Zeng.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 141(11), 112903 (May 20, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-18-1540; doi: 10.1115/1.4043695 History: Received July 17, 2018; Accepted April 24, 2019

Pore–throat size is a key parameter for the assessment of reservoirs. Tight sandstone has the strong heterogeneity in the distribution of pores and throats; consequently, it is very difficult to characterize their distributions. In this study, the existing pore–throat characterization techniques were used jointly with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA), high-pressure mercury intrusion (HPMI), and rate-controlled mercury intrusion (RCMI) technologies to highlight features of throat sizes and distribution of pores in tight sandstone reservoirs of the Y Basin in China. In addition, full-scale maps (FSMs) were generated. The study results show that key pore types in reservoirs of the Y Basin include residual intergranular pores, dissolved pores, clay mineral pores, and microfractures. LTNA can effectively characterize the distribution of pore–throats with a radius of 2–25 nm. HPMI test results show that tight sandstones contain throats with a radius less than 1000 nm, which are mainly distributed in 25–400 nm and have a unimodal distribution. RCMI tests show that there is no significant difference in pore radius distribution of the tight sandstones, peaking at approximately 100,000–200,000 nm; the throat radius of tight sandstones varies greatly and is less than 1000 nm, in agreement with that of HPMI. Generally, the pore–throat radius distribution of tight sandstones is relatively concentrated. By using the aforementioned techniques, FSM distribution features of pore–throat radius in tight sandstone can be characterized effectively. G6 tight sandstone samples develop pores and throats with a radius of 2–350,000 nm, and the pore–throat types of tight sandstone reservoirs in Y basin are mainly mesopores and macropores.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Pore types of tight sandstone in the Y Basin: (a) full view, with well-developed pores and poor connectivity, (b) intergranular kaolinite, (c) leaf-shaped chlorite between grains, (d) intergranular grain-emulsion, illite, chlorite, (e) quartz overgrowth-cementation, and (f) quartz overgrowth-cementation

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Fig. 2

Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm curve

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Fig. 3

Pore volume difference curve of low-temperature nitrogen adsorption of sandstone

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Fig. 4

Intrusion and extrusion curves of the high-pressure mercury injection

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Fig. 5

Pore–throat size distributions measured by the HPMI

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Fig. 6

Pore radius distribution curve tested by RCMI

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Fig. 7

Throat radius distributions curve tested by RCMI

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Fig. 8

Pore–throat ratio distribution curve

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Fig. 9

Rate-controlled mercury intrusion curves

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Fig. 10

Relationship between average throat radius and porosity and permeability

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Fig. 11

Pore–throat radius distribution

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Fig. 12

Full-scale map of pore size distribution of G6 rock samples: (a) G6, K = 0.040 mD, (b) G9, K = 0.046 mD, (c) G47, K = 0.077 mD, (d) GQ7, K = 0.628 mD

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Fig. 13

Influence of pore–throat size on porosity and permeability in tight sandstone reservoirs

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