In this study, two different turbulence methodologies are investigated to predict transitional flow in a 75% stenosed axisymmetric experimental arterial model and in a slightly modified version of the model with an eccentric stenosis. Large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) methods were applied; in the LES simulations eddy viscosity subgrid-scale models were employed (basic and dynamic Smagorinsky) while the RANS method involved the correlation-based transitional version of the hybrid flow model. The RANS simulations used 410,000 and 820,000 element meshes for the axisymmetric and eccentric stenoses, respectively, with less than 2 viscous wall units for the boundary elements, while the LES used 1,200,000 elements with less than 1. Implicit filtering was used for LES, giving an overlap between the resolved and modeled eddies, ensuring accurate treatment of near wall turbulence structures. Flow analysis was carried out in terms of vorticity and eddy viscosity magnitudes, velocity, and turbulence intensity profiles and the results were compared both with established experimental data and with available direct numerical simulations (DNSs) from the literature. The simulation results demonstrated that the dynamic Smagorinsky LES and RANS transitional model predicted fairly comparable velocity and turbulence intensity profiles with the experimental data, although the dynamic Smagorinsky model gave the best overall agreement. The present study demonstrated the power of LES methods, although they were computationally more costly, and added further evidence of the promise of the RANS transition model used here, previously tested in pulsatile flow on a similar model. Both dynamic Smagorinsky LES and the RANS model captured the complex transition phenomena under physiological Reynolds numbers in steady flow, including separation and reattachment. In this respect, LES with dynamic Smagorinsky appeared more successful than DNS in replicating the axisymmetric experimental results, although inflow conditions, which are subject to caveats, may have differed. For the eccentric stenosis, LES with Smagorinsky coefficient of 0.13 gave the closest agreement with DNS despite the known shortcomings of fixed coefficients. The relaminarization as the flow escaped the influence of the stenosis was amply demonstrated in the simulations, graphically so in the case of LES.
Comparison of LES of Steady Transitional Flow in an Idealized Stenosed Axisymmetric Artery Model With a RANS Transitional Model
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Tan, F. P. P., Wood, N. B., Tabor, G., and Xu, X. Y. (April 7, 2011). "Comparison of LES of Steady Transitional Flow in an Idealized Stenosed Axisymmetric Artery Model With a RANS Transitional Model." ASME. J Biomech Eng. May 2011; 133(5): 051001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4003782
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