The exhaust plumes of modern military engines can be rendered visible at low augmentor power operation by the presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Visible plumes have also been observed from some industrial gas turbines that have duct burners downstream of the power turbines. In 1986, gaseous emissions measurements were taken behind two F101 turbofan engines to determine the effect of reheat level on the degree of conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide and to relate the plume visibility to nitrogen dioxide concentration.

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