Numerical and experimental techniques were applied in order to study the in-cylinder flow field in a commercial four-valve per cylinder spark ignition engine. Investigation was aimed at analyzing the generation and evolution of tumble-vortex structures during the intake and compression strokes, and the capacity of this engine to promote turbulence enhancement during tumble degradation at the end of the compression stroke. For these purposes, three different approaches were analyzed. First, steady flow rig tests were experimentally carried out, and then reproduced by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Once CFD was assessed, cold dynamic simulations of the full engine cycle were performed for several engine speeds (1500 rpm, 3000 rpm, and 4500 rpm). Steady and cold dynamic results were compared in order to assess the feasibility of the former to quantify the in-cylinder flow. After that, combustion was incorporated by means of a homogeneous heat source, and dynamic boundary conditions were introduced in order to approach real engine conditions. The combustion model estimates the burning rate as a function of some averaged in-cylinder flow variables (temperature, pressure, turbulent intensity, and piston position). Results were employed to characterize the in-cylinder flow field of the engine and to establish similarities and differences between the three performed tests that are currently used to estimate the engine mean flow characteristics (steady flow rig, and cold and real dynamic simulations).
In-Cylinder Flow Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Four-Valve Spark Ignition Engine: Comparison Between Steady and Dynamic Tests
Ramajo, D. E., and Nigro, N. M. (March 5, 2010). "In-Cylinder Flow Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Four-Valve Spark Ignition Engine: Comparison Between Steady and Dynamic Tests." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. May 2010; 132(5): 052804. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4000265
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