J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):253-257. doi:10.1115/1.1615795.

Sloan, E. D., 1990, Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Sloan, E. D., Happel J., and Hnatow M. A., editors, 1994, International Conference on Natural Gas Hydrates, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 715 , April 29.Haq,  Bilal U., 1999, “ Methane in the Deep Blue Sea,” Science, SCIEAS285, July 23, pp. 543, 544.sciSCIEAS0036-8075Collett,  Timothy S., and Kuuskraa,  Vello A., 1998, “ Hydrates Contain Vast Store of World Gas Resources,” Oil & Gas J., OIGJAV96(19), May 11, pp. 90–95.8qsOIGJAV0030-1388Kvenvolden, Keith, A., 2000, “Chapter 2, Natural Gas Hydrate: Introduction and History of Discovery,” Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments, Michael D. Max ed, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, pp. 9–16.Pendick,  D., 1998, “ The Power Below,” New Scientist, ZZZZZZ158(2136), May 30, pp. 38–41.Max, Michael D., 1990, Gas Hydrates and Acoustically Laminated Sediments: Potential Environmental Cause of Anomalously Low Acoustic Bottom Loss in Deep-Ocean Sediments, NRL Report 9235, February 9, pp. 1–63.Dillon, William P., and Max, Michael D., 2000, “Chapter 6, Oceanic Gas Hydrate,” Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments, Michael D. Max ed, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, pp. 61–76.Hayden, Thomas, 2002, “Fire and Ice,” U.S. News and World Report, May 27, pp. 60–62.U.S. Department of Energy, 1999, National Methane Hydrate Multi-yearRandDProgram Plan, Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, June, pp. 1–42.Audus,  Harry, 1997, “ Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technology: An Overview of the CO2 Capture and Sequestration Studies and Further Activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Program,” Energy (Oxford), ENEYDS22(2/3), pp. 217–221.eneENEYDS0360-5442Sharke,  Paul, 1999, “ Fueling the Cells,” Mechanical Engineering, ZZZZZZpp. 46–49.Brewer,  P. G. , 1999, “ Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO,” Science, SCIEAS284(5416), May 7, pp. 943–945.sciSCIEAS0036-8075Morgan,  James J. , 1999, “ Hydrate Formation from Gaseous CO2 and Water,” Environ. Sci. Technol., ESTHAG33, pp. 1448–1452.estESTHAG0013-936XTeng,  Ho, 1998, “ Can CO2 Hydrate Deposited in the Ocean Always Reach the Seabed?,” Energy Convers. Manage., ECMADL39(10), pp. 1045–1051.ecoECMADL0196-8904Monastersky,  Richard, 1999, “ Goodby to a Greenhouse Gas,” Sci. News (Washington, D. C.), SCNEBK155(25), June 19, pp. 342–394.946SCNEBK0036-8423Sharke,  Paul, 2002, “Better Storage Through Chemistry,” Mechanical Engineering, February, pp. 40–43.Valenti,  Michael, 2002, “Fill’er up-with hydrogen,” Mechanical Engineering, February, pp. 44–48.Markey, Kevin, 2002, “Freedom’s Floating City,” USA-Weekend, February 8–10, p. 14.Shuku,  Masanori, 2001, “ Overview of Mega-Float and Its Utilization,” Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Technical Review, ZZZZZZ38(2), June 2001, pp. 39–46.Winterstein,  Steven R., , 1999, “ Reliability of Floating Structures: Extreme Response and Loan Factor Design,” J. Waterw., Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng., JWPED5125(4), July, August, pp. 163–169.9zzJWPED50733-950XStephens,  K. R., Ronalds,  B. F., and Piermattei,  E. J., 1999, “A Novel Approach for Exploitation of Deep Water Gas Fields,” J. Pet. Technol., April, pp. 90–92.Gunther,  Judith Anne, 1997, “Frozen Fuel,” Popular Science, April, pp. 62–67.Paull,  C. K., 1997, “ Direct Measurement of in situ Methane Quantities in a Large Gas-hydrate Reservoir,” Nature (London), NATUAS385(6615), January 30, pp. 426–428.natNATUAS0028-0836Winters, W. J., et al., 1998, “Physical Properties of Sediments and their Relation to Gas Hydrate Occurrence, JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 Research Well, MacKenzie Delta, Canada,” JNOC Methane Hydrates Symposium, Chiba City, Japan, Oct 10–22.Normile,  W. Dennis, 1999, “ Ocean Project Drills for Methane Hydrates,” Science, SCIEAS286(5444), November 19, p. 1456.sciSCIEAS0036-8075Lee, S., 1997, Methane and Its Derivatives, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Harding, A. J., 1959, Ammonia Manufacture and Uses, Oxford University Press, London.Holder,  G., 2002, “ Formation of Hydrates from Single-Phase Aqueous Solutions and Implications for Oceanic Sequestration of CO2,” Chem. Eng. Sci., (Preprint of the Spring 2001 National Meeting in San Diego, California).Paull, Charles K., et al., 2000, “Chapter 12, Potential Role of Gas Hydrate Decomposition in Generating Submarine Slope Failures,” Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments, Michael D. Max ed, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, pp. 149–156.Herzog,  H. J., 1996, “ Environmental Impacts of Ocean Disposal of CO2,” Energy Convers. Manage., ECMADL37(6–8), pp. 999–1005.ecoECMADL0196-8904

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):258-265. doi:10.1115/1.1626133.

This paper presents a novel approach to designing sensors and instrumentation for monitoring and controlling multiphase processes. It is based on the use of distributed sensor arrays, embedded within vital plant components, which provides an enhanced method of monitoring multiphase phenomena in both the spatial and temporal sense. This can be of particular importance for a more efficient extraction of fossil fuels and improved energy management in manufacturing sector. Two case studies are provided. First example shows the use of the concept in the separation processes in oil and gas extraction sector, while the second relates to nylon polymerization in the chemical industry.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):266-273. doi:10.1115/1.1615246.

A unified hydrodynamic model is developed for predictions of flow pattern transitions, pressure gradient, liquid holdup and slug characteristics in gas-liquid pipe flow at all inclination angles from −90° to 90° from horizontal. The model is based on the dynamics of slug flow, which shares transition boundaries with all the other flow patterns. By use of the entire film zone as the control volume, the momentum exchange between the slug body and the film zone is introduced into the momentum equations for slug flow. The equations of slug flow are used not only to calculate the slug characteristics, but also to predict transitions from slug flow to other flow patterns. Significant effort has been made to eliminate discontinuities among the closure relationships through careful selection and generalization. The flow pattern classification is also simplified according to the hydrodynamic characteristics of two-phase flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):274-283. doi:10.1115/1.1615618.

In Zhang et al. [1], a unified hydrodynamic model is developed for prediction of gas-liquid (co-current) pipe flow behavior based on slug dynamics. In this study, the new model is validated with extensive experimental data acquired with different pipe diameters, inclination angles, fluid physical properties, gas-liquid flow rates and flow patterns. Good agreement is observed in every aspect of the two-phase pipe flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):284-293. doi:10.1115/1.1616584.

Pressure and temperature variations of natural gas flows in a pipeline may cause partial gas condensation. Fluid phase behavior and prevailing conditions often make liquid appearance inevitable, which subjects the pipe flow to a higher pressure loss. This study focuses on the hydrodynamic behavior of the common scenarios that may occur in natural gas pipelines. For this purpose, a two-fluid model is used. The expected flow patterns as well as their transitions are modeled with emphasis on the low-liquid loading character of such systems. In addition, the work re-examines previous implementations of two-flow model for gas-condensate flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):294-298. doi:10.1115/1.1625394.

Gas-liquid two-phase flow exists extensively in the transportation of hydrocarbon fluids. A more precise prediction of liquid holdup in near-horizontal, wet-gas pipelines is needed in order to better predict pressure drop and size downstream processing facilities. The most important parameters are pipe geometry (pipe diameter and orientation), physical properties of the gas and liquid (density, viscosity and surface tension) and flow conditions (velocity, temperature and pressure). Stratified flow and annular flow are the two flow patterns observed most often in near-horizontal pipelines under low liquid loading conditions. Low liquid loading is commonly referred to as cases in which liquid loading is less than 1,100 m3/MMm3 (200 bbl/MMscf). Low liquid loading gas-liquid two-phase flow at −1° downward pipe was studied for air-water flow in the present study. The measured parameters included gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, pressure, differential pressure, temperature, liquid holdup, pipe wetted perimeter, liquid film flow rate, droplet entrainment fraction and droplet deposition rate. A new phenomenon was observed with air-water flow at low superficial velocities and with a liquid loading larger than 600 m3/MMm3. The liquid holdup increased as gas superficial velocity increased. In order to investigate the effects of the liquid properties on flow characteristics, the experimental results for air-water flow are compared with the results for air-oil flow provided by Meng. (1999, “Low Liquid Loading Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow In Near-Horizontal Pipes,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. of Tulsa.)

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):299-303. doi:10.1115/1.1618264.

Analysis of polymer-matrix composite sucker rod systems using finite element methods is performed. Composite sucker rods used in oil production fail mainly due to fatigue loading. In majority of cases, the failure is in the region of the joint where the composite rod and the steel endfitting meet. 2D and 3D Finite Element Analysis and experimental tests are carried out in order to observe the stress distribution and to find the regions of stress concentrations inside the endfitting. The causes of failure of the composite sucker rods are identified as high transverse compressive stress caused by overloading that results in the crushing of the rod, and high stress concentrations present at the grooves of the endfitting that initiate premature cracks. Based on the result of this study, enhanced design of the composite sucker rod system can be accomplished.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):304-310. doi:10.1115/1.1619431.

Anytime flammable gas mixtures are handled, there is a risk of combustion. This is particularly true in many industrial applications where space is limited and equipment is located near sources of ignition. Unfortunately, there is a lack of understanding of combustion phenomena within process equipment such as mufflers, rotating blowout preventers, liquid traps, and dry gas seal assemblies. These vessels have small internal volumes, complex internal geometries, and are connected using small diameter piping. This paper discusses the results of a parametric study which was carried out to establish the nature of combustion within such vessels and tubing. The test vessel had an internal volume of 7 in3 (115 ml) and the tubing had a nominal diameter of 0.5 in (1.27 mm). Flowing, turbulent, pre-mixed natural gas/air mixtures were used. The study did not attempt to increase turbulence using devices such as mesh screens or attempt to stabilize the flame. The results from a representative sample of 76 tests, from the 5,000+ tests that have been completed, are discussed herein. Typical pressure and temperature responses are presented and analyzed. It is demonstrated that flames can be remotely detected using only high speed pressure data. Turbulent flames were formed whose velocity was found to be linearly dependant on Reynolds number.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):311-317. doi:10.1115/1.1625395.

The simulated annealing algorithm with the Bessel method for curve fitting and the tensor product method for surface fitting is used to transform engine discrete experimental data into a form that enables these data to be incorporated in the optimization process. Optimum curves of the engine torque versus the engine rotational speed and the engine rotational speed versus the motorcycle speed for the fuel consumption and the carbon monoxide (CO) emission are obtained for a motorcycle with a continuously variable transmission (CVT). The engine rotational speed at which a motorcycle begins to move for the specific engine data is obtained. From design parameters, engine rotational speeds corresponding to the maximum and minimum CVT speed ratio change, the minimum fuel consumption and CO emission, and optimum design variables can be determined.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Energy Resour. Technol. 2003;125(4):318-324. doi:10.1115/1.1616037.

A general irreversible cycle model of a magnetic Ericsson refrigerator is established. The irreversibilities in the cycle model result from the finite-rate heat transfer between the working substance and the external heat reservoirs, the inherent regenerative loss, the additional regenerative loss due to thermal resistances, and the heat leak loss between the external heat reservoirs. The cycle model is used to optimize the performance of the magnetic Ericsson refrigeration cycle. The fundamental optimum relation between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance of the cycle is derived. The maximum coefficient of performance, maximum cooling rate and other relevant important parameters are calculated. The optimal operating region of the cycle is determined. The results obtained here are very general and will be helpful for the optimal design and operation of the magnetic Ericsson refrigerators.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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