This article discusses various engineering revolutions taking place to deal with challenges of complex systems’ design. Engineers who design complex systems have to understand how the various components of a system fit together and anticipate how the interactions between these components could lead to failure. The development of sophisticated expert system software that can provide rapid and intuitive access to vast amounts of data on materials and design features of available components also enables an individual engineer to tap into the expertise of many others. Adaptive risk management structures, such as those used in high-reliability organizations, which rely on expertise, planning, and communication, can help to reduce the uncertainty of human factor risk. Some automated control and feedback systems use embedded sensors and extremely rapid response mechanisms to prevent or limit damage from a failure far faster than a human operator could. The experts suggest that the rise of complex systems creates a challenge to traditional ways of engineering.

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