In this paper, we (i) present a methodology for determining the aerodynamic performance of bi-directional turbomachines for pumped thermal energy storage, i.e., turbomachines designed to operate as a compressor in one direction, and then as a turbine in the opposite direction, (ii) carry out performance computations for such turbomachines, and (iii) propose principles for conceptual design of these devices. Focus is placed on using the energy storage cycle not only to identify the novel requirements placed on bi-directional turbomachines but also to estimate the effect of these requirements on the efficiency of the energy storage process. In particular, the difference between aerodynamic loading in forward and in backward operation causes the blading to work at incidences leading to the performance below maximum efficiency, resulting in a lower round-trip efficiency. The description of the design principles includes determination of the number of stages, definition of nondimensional parameters for blading selection, and optimization of two-dimensional blading for bi-directional operation. The assessment of stage count shows the relationship between relative Mach number, pressure ratio, and round-trip efficiency. The nondimensional parameters are assessed through a bi-directional analogue to existing “Smith charts,” for the efficiency of single-direction turbomachines, as a function of camber and stagger. The blade shape evaluation and optimization show how the blade profile can be modified to address the requirements of a bi-directional turbomachine, enabling an increase in round-trip efficiency of two percentage points compared to a baseline double circular arc configuration.